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djrontclts of 

an #lb Inn 


(jJnrnpU IGam ^rlynol ICibrary 

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Cornell University Library 
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Chronicles of an old Inn or A few word 

3 1924 021 676 683 

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in trembling awe, will regard with the same 
indifference a little work so crude and in- 
complete. But as sometimes a rough sketch 
brings persons and places as vividly to 
remembrance as highly finished pictures, 
perhaps these " In Memoriam Chronicles of 
an Old Inn" may, in some degree, interest 
those who have not time to read more 
skilfully written but longer histories. 

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THE CHAPEL . . ... 231 




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^ JFeio asaorDs about ©raa)'s Inn, HonUon. 


About half-way down the great thorough- 
fare of Holborn, there is an old and some- 
what gloomy gateway. That gateway is 
low and dark, but rarely silent, as from 
early dawn until late into the night it 
echoes and re-echoes with the thunder of 
the mighty traffic of the great street on 
which it opens. 

From early dawn until late into the 
night may be heard the heavy roll of 
omnibuses, the sharp rattle of cabs, the 
hurried steps of vast multitudes of foot 

f,y B 

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©i^ronicles of an ©IB Inn. 

Like the arteries of the living body, 
that as long as life endures receives fresh 
blood from the heart, are the main streets 
that lead from "the City," that heart of 
gigantic London ; and from this great centre 
of the trade of Europe, the wondrous stream 
of commerce is for ever flowing. 

Of these magnificent streets few are 
more striking to the stranger than the 
grand old thoroughfare of Holborn. 

Its width, its letigth, the precipitous 
hill over which it passes, the noble viaduct 
that now eases the too rapid descent, the 
memories that are connected with this, one 
of the most ancient, as well as one of 
the most important streets of the English 
capital, render it more than ordinarily inte- 
resting to the foreigner, and to the stranger. 

A few of the ancient houses are still 
in existence, and from their quaint old 
casements many royal pageants and many 
sorrowful processions have been witnessed. 

Kings and Queens arrayed in gorgeous 

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ffitraw's Inn. 

robes, blazing with costly jewels, and sur- 
rounded by glittering courtiers, have gaily 
moved onwards amid the blare of trumpets, 
and the shouts of admiring crowds, to 
partake of sumptuous Court festivals. 

In awe-inspiring contrast to the gay 
trains, and to the beauty and mirth of the 
pleasure-seekers so joyously riding forward 
to fresh delight, other scenes have, alas ! 
been too frequently witnessed from these 
same windows. 

Amid the derisive cries of a savage 
rabble, or amid the gloomy silence of a 
suffering and oppressed people, other and 
ghastly processions have also passed this 

Merciless guards and black-robed priests 
are here, and in their midst, watched with 
zealous and cruel care, are tottering and 
emaciated figures — martyrs on their way 
to Smithfield, prepared to seal by their 
blood the testimony they have borne to 
the truth of their faith. 

B 2 

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ffiiiroittcfeg of an <®ID Iim. 

Broken down by suffering, with a frame 
ofttimes racked by the torture it has under- 
gone, many an heroic heart has still triumphed 
over the crushed and mangled body, and 
with uplifted hands and in fervid accents 
the Christian hero, even amidst the flames, 
praises God, who permits His faithful servant 
to testify, though in death, undying love 
and confidence in his Divine Father. 

God be thanked, however, that these 
hideous old times have long since passed 
away, and that England is now, by her 
noble tolerance and enlightened Christianity, 
doing much to show the world that it is 
not by cruelty and persecution that our 
holy religion requires to be upheld. 

Oldbourne, as it was called in olden 
times, was early one of the important 
thoroughfares in, or rather leading to the 
City of London, and although the traffic 
must in days of yore have been but a faint 
shadow of what it now is, still even as 

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©raw's Eitn. 

far back as the reign of Richard II. it was 
necessary to make special laws for its good 
ordering, by reason of the number of carts, 
wains, drays, and other conveyances that 
passed that way. 

One old chronicler complains thus 
quaintly : 

"The coachman rides behind his horses' 
tails," saith he, "he lasheth them, but 
looketh not before nor behind him. The 
drayman sitteth and sleepeth on his dray, 
and so letteth his horses lead him home." 

For the better maintenance of safety, 
it seems that it had been ordered that 
the fore horse of every carriage should be 
led by hand; but we see that in old 
days, as indeed is sometimes the case now, 
such prudent regulations were but little 
regarded. So the same old chronicler 
mournfully adds : " These wise laws are 
not faithfully observed." 

In these same old days coaches were 
unknown, but a singular kind of chariot, 

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®t)fOttwfe» of an ©ID IFnn. 

or large covered chair, slung upon wheels, 
and called a whirlicote, was used by ladies 
of high rank. 

When Richard II. travelled from Kent 
to London, the King and all his Court 
rode on horseback, but the Queen Mother, 
being weak and sickly, made the journey 
in a whirlicote. 

A new fashion came in vogue the 
following year, when King Richard married 
Princess Anne of Bohemia. 

The fair young Queen made her first 
appearance in public arrayed in white robes 
embroidered in silver, so that " she shone 
in beauty and brightness like unto a sweet 
crescent moon," and to the admiration of all 
beholders, she rode gallantly at the King's 
left hand, seated sideways on her horse, 
on a machine called a side-saddle. 

From that moment whirlicotes went out 
of fashion, and every woman who was young 
enough to mount a horse rode sideways like 
the Queen. 

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©rag's llntt. 

But centuries have passed away, each 
century, each year indeed, adding to the 
mighty stream of traffic, and now the roar 
of passing vehicles, the hurrying footsteps 
of thousands of foot passengers, cease not 
from early dawn until late into the night. 

To the unaccustomed ear, to the un- 
accustomed eye, such overpowering noise, 
such perpetual movement, speedily becomes 
bewildering and even stupefying. Ear and 
eye alike are exhausted by the unwonted strain. 

Very few, however, of the many who 
pas§ and repass that way, notice the low, 
dark archway already mentioned opening on 
the left-hand side of the street when pro- 
ceeding towards the City. Turn down that 
archway, and ere twenty steps are made 
a different world is found. Not only indeed 
a different world, but a chance visitor might 
say with reason that he is out of the world, 
the sudden quiet, the sudden peace, is in 
such extraordinary contrast to the rush and 
hurry of the street he has left. ' 

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®i[)rott(d0S of an ®l» Enn. 

Instead of the blinding glare, the suffoca- 
ting dust, the bewildering noise of Holborn, 
the quiet court to which this archway leads, 
rests in almost monastic calm. Lofty houses 
intercept the burning rays of the sun, and 
cast their soft gray shadows half across 
the square. Even the noise of the great 
street is softened to the ear, and becomes 
almost soothing, as the echoes of it fall 
and are gradually lost amid the thick old 

The maddening hubbub of carts, cabs, 
and hurrying feet fades into an indistinct 
murmur, like the throbbing of the waves 
of the great Atlantic when heard far away 

To one given to idle and desultory 
wanderings, and to idle and . desultory 
thoughts, the quaint old nooks and corners 
that may often be found in the midst even 
of the most populous towns, have far 
more charms than the busier haunts of men, 
for to those who love to muse on bygone 

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<ffira»'» Btttt, 

days there is a strange and constantly in- 
creasing fascination in the conventual quiet, 
the faded grandeur of many of these time- 
worn spots. 

In truth, however, the old squares of 
that ancient Inn of Court called Gray's 
Inn, though quiet and retired, are by no 
means gloomy. Not only are they cool 
and restful in the glowing days of summer, 
but in their pleasant courts some remains 
may still be found of the sweet country 
sights, of the sweet country sounds that 
centuries ago made the drives and walks 
by Oldbourne Hill, with its pretty lanes 
and paths, and its fragrant hedgerows, the 
favourite resort, not only of the tired and 
heated citizens of London, but also of the 
great lords- whose stately palaces were either 
grouped around Westminster, or stretched 
far along the picturesque river-bank then, 
as now, called the Strand. 

No doubt the beautiful and rapidly flow^ 
ing river had many charms, and we know 

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^ifVonic\e» of an ©ID Inn. 

from Pepys, that during the summer heats 
its broad bosom was covered with pleasure- 
boats and wherries. 

In those days smoke did not darken, 
nor did evil smells and sights defile the 
waters of the sweet Thames. Fair gardens 
then bordered its banks, and trees and 
flowers dipped tendrils and branches into 
its waves. 

Still, notwithstanding these attractions, 
the Londoners dearly loved Oldbourne Hill, 
where the fresh cool breezes came from the 
Kent and Surrey hills laden with the 
sweet scent of gorse and broom (that 
favourite badge of our Plantagenet Princes), 
and from the valleys and sunny slopes below 
came the richer perfumes of innumerable 
vineyards and hop-grounds. 

It is difficult to realise, while wanderino- 
amongst the wilderness of houses that now 
surrounds and connects the cities of London 
and Westminster, that once fair fields and 
shady woods extended for miles, where now 

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©raw's Iim. 

are only found grimy streets and dismal 
courts. Still more difficult is it to believe 
that within the last hundred years these same 
fair fields were dangerous to traverse after 
dark, by reason of the many footpads who 
infested the neighbourhood. 

Beyond St. Pancras Church a bell was 
rung at stated hours, in order that foot 
passengers who wished to cross the meadows 
towards Hampstead and Highgate, or go to 
those suburbs called Camden and Somers 
Towns, should have the protection of an 
armed watchman. In those days few per- 
sons ventured abroad after nightfall without 
carrying some defensive weapon. Without 
gas, without police, London streets as well as 
London suburbs were fraught with danger. 

Now, when dazzled by the glare of the 
streets, when wearied by the overpowering 
noise of the great town, a shady corner in 
quiet Gray's Inn Square seems doubly 

The bright August sun shines fiercely on 

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©iirotttefes of an ©IB Inn. 

the opposite pavement. Its rays glint up 
find down the fagade of the tall houses, here 
and there catching the angle of a projecting 
cornice, then reddening and almost beauti- 
fying some old smoke-blackened chimney. 

Many are the beautiful though rarely- 
noticed spots of colour these rays bring to 

Tiny atoms of green moss, and of those 
other hardy lichens that time gathers round 
about old tiles, glow like gems when caught 
by the flickering beams. Even the shade- 
loving lycopodiums, that as years roll on, 
softly carpet with their minute sprays all the 
damp, ugly spots into which the sun rarely 
penetrates, even these modest plants grow 
brighter and morfe beautiful as the unwonted 
warmth and sunshine steal into their secluded 
corners. With what delicacy and grace does 
not Nature soften and re-colour all the 
injuries that time and man's neglect so 
surely bring about ! 

As the hours wear on, the restfulness of 

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ffira»'8 Etttt. 13 

the old precincts grows more and more sweet. 
The subdued roar of the great city rises and 
falls in measured cadence, and mingles quite 
pleasantly with the cawing of the rooks as 
they slowly wing their way home from their 
feeding grounds near Hampstead and High- 
gate, wheeling and cawing lazily as they 
circle round the old trees ere they settle 
themselves for the night. 

An ancient rookery still exists in the 
gardens of the Inn, and the soft evening air, 
as it sways to and fro the branches of the tall 
elms in which the nests have been built, 
brings with it the delicious scent of newly-cut 

Well may the Benchers love their Inn. 
In no other place in London are there so 
many pleasant reminders of the fair country 
■ that once surrounded these Courts and Halls. 
When seated in the gardens under the 
shade of the ancient trees, listening to the 
songs and chirpings of innumerable birds, it 
seems really incongruous that in so restful a 

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1 4 ffii&ronwles of an ®K> Inn. 

spot, where so much speaks of quiet country 
life, weighty legal matters are for ever being 
transacted. Could we penetrate into the 
secrets of many of the old, dark houses that 
frown around, what tales of anxiety, of suffer- 
ing, what histories of the trials that blight 
men's lives would come to light. 

To the doctor and to the lawyer the 
deadly malady, the heart-crushing anxiety, 
must ever be told without reserve. No 
cruel symptom, no ugly detail, must be 
concealed. No man may keep a secret from 
such advisers. Lawyers as well as doctors 
must be told not only the truth, but the 
whole often hateful truth. 

These old houses could indeed tell many 
mysterious, many marvellous tales, but silent 
as they are, their heavy, solid doorways, their 
long, narrow windows, their broad staircases 
and lofty rooms, are in themselves a history 
of the past. They are accurate though mute 
evidences of the time when they came into 
being. A faded grandeur still hangs about 

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©raw's Btttt. IS 

them, for they were built when land was 
not sold by the foot as it now is, and space 
was then a luxury comparatively easily pur- 
chased. So the staircases are broad, and 
the rooms large and lofty ; but years have 
passed, centuries have passed, and staircases 
and passages have grown dusky and dim, 
and the handsome rooms devoted only to 
the stern purposes of life, and uncheered 
or graced by the softening presence of 
woman, have become shabby and harsh of 
aspect. So generation after generation of 
lawyers dwell here and pass away, each 
generation leaving an additional shadow 
of dusky shabbiness upon the poor old 

The occupiers of the Inn are for the 
most part day dwellers only, doing their 
work in chambers, and leaving in the evening 
for their houses elsewhere. 

Some few bachelors, however, make their 
home here, and when that is the case, the 
sets of chambers so occupied are the per- 

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1 6 ©ijrotttclcs of an ©IK Inn. 

fection of comfort. Those who have the 
good fortune to know these snug abodes, 
may well be eloquent as to their merits. 
The solid old mahogany tables, the exqui- 
sitely finished Chippendale chairs, are mellow 
with age, and glow with the rich gloss pro- 
duced by much rubbing. Then the fireplaces, 
so hospitably deep and ample, where the 
ruddy flames can so well be seen as they 
dart up the great chimneys, casting their light 
upon the quaint masks and carvings that 
adorn the mantel-shelves ; they make the 
ugly faces laugh as they are caught by the 
genial light. 

The roomy arm-chairs, too, hav? assumed 
the cosy hollowness that speaks of constant 
use, and look most invitingly comfortable. 

During summer the long narrow windows 
will be opened upon the bright and sunny 
garden, where great beds of mignonette 
and long lines of sweet-peas make the 
summer air full of fragrance ; and not unfre- 
quently on a warm, drowsy afternoon may be 

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©rap's Inn. 17 

heard the soothing tones of a violoncello 
played by no unskilful hand, and perchance 
a tender old melody of Purcell or Gluck, 
or one of the grand harmonies of Beethoven, 
adds yet another charm to the peace and 
restfulness of the place. 

In short, in many parts of this pleasant 
Inn old age has attained that judicious 
number of years when men wisely discard 
mere show, and are content to seek and 
obtain intense comfort. 

Some of the residents in Gray's Inn are 
Benchers, and these gentlemen are not only 
entitled to chambers, but during Term time 
an especial dinner is provided for them in 
the Great Hall ; and as the Society always 
numbers amongst its members some of the 
most distinguished men of the day, it may 
readily be understood how interesting and 
attractive these meetings are. 

Inns of Court were originally so called 
because the students belonging to them 


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i8 asffvoniclta of an ©10 Inn. 

were bound to attend and serve the Courts 
of Judicature. 

Anciently these colleges received none 
but the sons of noblemen, and of those 
gentlemen whose rank qualified them to do 
service to the King in his Court. 

Fortescue affirms that in his time there 
were about two thousand students in the 
Inns of Court and of Chancery, all of whom 
were j^/lu nobilium, or gentlemen born. 
But the rigidity of this rule was gradually 
relaxed, and in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
Sir Edward Coke reckons that not more 
than half the students then studying in the 
various Inns were of gentle birth. 

These Inns of Court, that for centuries 
have been so justly famed for the education 
and introduction of men of learning in the 
law, are governed by masters, principals, 
Benchers, stewards, treasurers, and other 

Amongst their buildings are public halls 
for exercises, such as reading, declaiming, 

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©ras's Inn. 19 

reciting, etc. At one time every student was 
compelled to attend and take part in these 
exercises for a certain number of years 
before he was admitted to plead at the Bar. 
At the present day, however, most of these 
regulations have fallen into disuse, and are 
no longer insisted upon. 

The societies have not any judicial au- 
thority over their members, but they have 
certain orders and rules amongst them- 
selves, which have by consent the force of 

Fof slight offences persons are ex- 
commoned, or put out of commons. For 
graver faults they forfeit their chambers, 
or, indeed, may be expelled the college. 
When an offender has been thus ex- 
pelled, he can never be received by any 
of the other societies. 

The members of these societies, or 
Inns, may be divided into Benchers, outer 
barristers, inner barristers, and students. 

The Inns themselves are divided into, 

c 2 

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ffifirottt'des of an ©IK Mn. 

and are severally denominated, Inns of 
Chancery and Inns of Court. 

The most ancient of the former is 
Thavies Inn, which was begun in the 
reign of Edward III. The other Inns of 
Chancery are New Inn, Symond's Inn, 
Clement's Inn, Clifford's Inn (once the 
property of Lord Clifford), Staples' Inn (so 
called because it had belonged to the Mer- 
chants of the Staple), Lion Inn (forrnerly 
an ordinary hostelry for travellers, bearing 
the sign of the Lion), Furnival's Inn, and 
Barnard's Inn. 

Inns of Chancery were, in the earlier 
centuries, considered as a preparatory col- 
lege for the younger students, who could 
here pursue the studies that would enable 
them to be admitted into the Inns of Court. 

The four principal Inns of Court are 
the Inner Temple, the Middle Temple, 
Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn. 

Gray's Inn formerly belonged to Lord 
Gray, and Lincoln's Inn to the Earl of 

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ffiras's Inn. 

Lincoln. The Inner and Middle Temple, 
once the dwellings of the famous Knights 
Templar, were purchased about three hun- 
dred years ago by the then leading Pro- 
fessors of the Common Law. 

There are also two other Inns, those of 
the Serjeants of the Law. 

The general daily life in the Inns of 
Court during olden times, is described by 
Fortescue with much minuteness, and ap- 
pears to have been both varied and attractive : 

" On working days most of the students 
applied themselves to the study of the law, 
and on holy days to the study of Holy 
Scripture. At the same time, however, the 
students were not allowed to neglect lighter 
pursuits, for they learned to sing, and to 
exercise themselves in all kind of harmony, 
and they also made provision for the exercise 
and consequent health of the body, for they 
constantly practised dancing and other noble- 
men's pastimes. They did everything in 
peace and amity." 

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^Ti^rontcUs of an (f^lO Xnn. 

This last assertion appears somewhat 
startling in an age when scenes of brawling 
and fighting were of almost daily occurrence 
in the streets of London. However, it may 
be presumed that in these old times the 
heads of societies, having young men to 
take care of, did try to take care of them, 
and did not leave them quite so much to 
themselves as is the case in these modern 

No doubt, there is much to be said in 
favour of training boys, as early as possible, 
to be self-dependent. 

We are proud, and proud with reason, 
of "Our Boys." Still the most sanguine 
amongst us must admit that there is room 
for improvement in the system that is adopted 
in most of our schools and colleges. 

It is the fashion now to deem that old 
heads can be seated on very young shoulders. 
These young fellows, scarcely more than 
children in years, are left to their own 
guidance, both morally and physically. 

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©rag's Knn. 23 

We may indeed glory in our boys in 
many respects. They are manly, honour- 
able, brave, and truthful, with a truthfulness 
that makes many a parent's heart beat high 
with pride and pleasure ; and yet, in how 
many households has not the sad knowledge 
come that the boys so loved, so gloried 
in, are ignorant and selfish — ignorant of 
most of the branches of useful knowledge, 
having tacitly been permitted to adopt 
habits of grievous self-indulgence ? 

When the young fellow has to enter 
upon his profession, when he has really to 
fight the battle of life, how often is it not 
found that the expensive education bestowed 
upon him (often at the cost of much self- 
denial from the rest of the family) is worth 
absolutely nothing ? 

Now that the fruit of so much learning 
has to be gathered, it is discovered that 
there is actually no fruit to gather ; that, 
in order to be eligible even for the contest 
of these competitive examinations, a young 

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24 ©i&rom'cles of an ®K» Inn. 

man who has been at school for years has 
to learn the very rudiments of necessary 
knowledge, and must cram himself in a 
few months, and at a dire expenditure of 
money and health, in those very subjects 
that he has so long been nominally studying. 

In how few schools are writing, English 
composition, arithmetic, geography, or modern 
languages thoroughly taught? And yet these 
are the very subjects absolutely essential for 
a candidate in a competitive examination. 

Then again, with regard to those who 
study hard. How many and how sad are 
the cases where the student has broken 
down physically, because due care had not 
been taken of the bodily health, while the 
brain had been unduly taxed ? 

There are, doubtless, exceptional in- 
stances of genius so marvellous that work 
comes easily both to mind and body. These 
are the men who become eventually our 
great statesmen, our great lawyers ; but 
these mighty ones are the exception, not 

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©rag's Hmx, 25 

the rule. Few, indeed, are they whose 
talents and whose powers enable them to 
overcome every difficulty. 

For the most part the learned student 
sinks into a frail and over-sensitive man, 
whose weak physical strength breaks down 
under a too severe mental strain. Often, 
indeed, it does so on the very eve of 

One of the most touching, and yet one 
of the truest and most vivid pictures ever 
given to us by that great writer Bulwer, 
is the sorrowful story in " Pelham " of the 
gentle and learned scholar, a student so 
skilled in book learning that he had dis- 
tanced all his compeers of the day, and yet 
so feeble in health, so deficient in what is 
called common-sense, that he was incapable 
of ruling his own household, or of coping 
with the every-day affairs of life. 

Surely there must be some means by 
which those appointed to rule can exer- 
cise a discreet supervision over the boys 

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26 ©Ijronftlcs of an ©10 Inn. 

and young men entrusted to their care. 
A supervision which, while not entrench- 
ing on their Hberty, will yet lead into 
right ways those who are entering on the 
varied and dangerous paths of life. 

Some wise writer has said : " More 
education is effected during the amuse- 
ments of youth than is gained by all the 
studies to which teachers give such zealous 

Now, in most places where boys are 
being trained, it seems a point of honour 
that out of school the masters shall never 
interfere, nor, indeed, in most cases do 
they appear. 

Besides the practices of olden times 
already mentioned the ancient custom called 
" Moots " must not be forgotten. 

Gray's Inn was especially conspicuous 
for those exercises, which Stow calls 
" Boltes," " Mootes," or " putting of cases," 
for the " Boltes " were conversational argu- 

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® raw's Imt. 27 

ments addressed to or put to a student by 
a Bencher and two barristers in private. 

Subsequently, when the student had be- 
come a sufficiently expert " Bolter," he 
was admitted to the " Mootes," where 
questions upon legal matters were debated 
by the students in the presence of the 
Benchers of the Society. 

The object of these exercises was to 
promote the faculty of ready speaking, 
and, in order to secure this end, the dis- 
putants were kept in ignorance of the 
topic to be argued until called upon to 
discuss it. 

The case, drawn up by the Reader, 
was laid upon the salt-cellar before meals ; 
none were permitted to look into it under 
pain of expulsion from the Society. 

These discussions were strictly legal, 
and the proceedings were conducted as 
nearly as possible in like manner to those 
of the Courts themselves. " About the end 
of the 17th century," says Lord Camp- 

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z8 ffi]&rottfcfeg ot an #ia Enn. 

bell, " Mootes fell into disuse, and they 
have now entirely ceased." 

It is in such institutions as these Inns 
of Court and other similar communities, 
that the old feudal feeling respecting an- 
cient servitors has been retained in much 
of its pristine integrity. Many of the old 
servants and inferior officers of Gray's Inn 
may be said to belong to the place by 
right of descent. They were born within 
its precincts, they have been trained beneath 
the shadows of its old walls. In their youth 
they began their course of serving under 
the guidance of father, or grandfather, and 
now, in their old age, have in their turns 
some post of trust and responsibility confided 
to them. 

There is something especially delightful 
and heart-stirring in the service of gray- 
headed men who have passed their lives 
in the same place, serving the same 

Shakespeare felt this, when, in describing 

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<ffira»'s Inn. 29 

old Adam in As You Like It, he makes 
the old man say : 

Master, go on, and I will follow thee, 
To the last gasp, with love and loyalty. 

Most of the old servitors in Gray's Inn 
are well-educated, well-informed men, and 
are in general fully acquainted with the 
histories, traditions, and quaint biographies 
connected with the ancient. Courts wherein 
their lives have been passed. 

The chief objects of their pride and 
affection, are of course the Benchers. For 
the Benchers they entertain the profound 
reverence that so powerful a body ol 
learned men is entitled to expect, and this 
respect is mingled at the same time with 
the affectionate solicitude that old servants 
have for kind and esteemed masters. 

They feel a great interest in the students, 
although they regard them for the most 
part as wild young fallows, promising, no 
doubt, but still far from possessing the 

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talents of former generations of lawyers. 
They will sometimes, indeed, shake their 
heads dolefully over the degeneracy of 
young men of to-day, when compared with 
the youth of the celebrated personages, 
whose names adorn the walls of the great 

Respecting the old buildings and old 
customs of the Inn they love to dilate for 
the hour together, and even the rooks come 
in for a share of their affection, and also for 
a considerable amount of anxiety, for this 
venerable community shows alarming symp- 
toms of decay, the aerial colony having sadly 
diminished of late years. 

In vain has the welfare of the infant 
progeny been tenderly watched over, latterly 
many unnatural parent rooks appear to have 
taken a dislike to their own offspring, and 
in that case peck the little ones to death 
without thought of parental duty. 

One old gray-headed rook, who is alv/ays 
the first to arrive on the ground when feed- 

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(&vas'» Jhm. 31 

ing time has come, and who hops about with 
an uncommonly consequential air, from all 
accounts appears to be a perfect reprobate 
among his fellows. The number of wives 
he has cruelly injured, and the number of 
children he has kicked out of the nest have 
acquired for him the evil reputation of being 
the ringleader of the badly disposed of the 
feathered tribe. 

Unfortunately, also, there is reason to 
fear that so bad an example has perverted 
several of the younger husbands and fathers. 
Infanticide has indeed of late so much in- 
creased, that it has now become a matter 
of grave consideration whether it will not 
be advisable to inflict the extreme punish- 
ment of the law upon the chief criminal. 
It is feared that it will be necessary to 
put this venerable gray head to death, as 
a terrible example to all rooks, and as a 
warning to all intending sinners. 

Unhappily it must be admitted that the 
diminution of these interesting inhabitants 

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of the higher regions is not altogether 
owing to their domestic deHnquencies. It 
is, no doubt, partly caused by the rapid 
growth of London, and the great distance 
the rooks have now to traverse in order 
to arrive at their natural feeding grounds. 

Another and deplorable cause arises from 
the decay and unavoidable destruction of 
some of the oldest trees. 

In former years there was a very large 
rookery in the gardens of Gray's Inn. In 
1875, however, storms and severe winters 
had so broken and damaged many of the 
largest trees that it was necessary to cut 
them down. This was done in March, and 
in April, to the consternation of the in- 
habitants of the Inn, the rooks . departed 
in a body, as if indignant at being thus 
despoiled of a portion of their dominions. 

For nearly a month not a bird appeared ; 
then about six pair shyly returned, as if 
unwilling to quit for ever so fair and so 
peaceful a dwelling. 

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The other wanderers have never come 
back ; but the little colony, though so much 
diminished from what it was in days of 
yore, still flourishes and indeed prospers. 

There are more nests this spring than 
there have been for several past years, and 
it may therefore be hoped that this ancient 
rookery may long continue to be one of 
the charms and attractions of Gray's Inn. 

Its existence undoubtedly mainly depends 
upon the durability of the grand and beautiful 
dwelling-places of the birds, the noble old 
elms, and unhappily such old elm trees are 
dangerous neighbours. With age their wood 
becomes not only brittle, but peculiarly liable 
to internal decay. 

After the heavy rains that so often suc- 
ceed dry summers, huge branches, sometimes 
the tree itself, will fall without warning. Such 
accidents not unfrequently occur in calm and 
quiet weather when danger is not suspected ; 
the vicinity of elm trees is therefore perilous 
to life as well as to neighbouring buildings. 

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34 ffi]&rotttrtfs of att <3Ui Htm, 

Besides rooks, many other birds, rare to 
London, may not unfrequently be found in 
the pleasant gardens of Gray's Inn. 

Dun, or hooded crows, have occasionally 
been seen here, and even jackdaws some- 
times come for a meal. 

As for the starling, this clever bird knows 
where he is well off, he is therefore a very 
constant visitor. Many delicate little song- 
sters too, who, having escaped from their 
cages, find that the liberty they have gained 
has only made them persecuted waifs and 
strays in the wilderness of London, seem 
to know, by intuition, that here they are not 
only in safety, but secure of a kind welcome. 

Goldfinches, chaffinches, green and gray 
linnets, the lesser redpole, robins, willow- 
wren, even the song-thrush may from time 
to time be found here, and, perched on the 
lower branches of the trees, reward the 
kind hands that have given them food by 
pouring forth some of their sweetest and* 
most touching songs. 

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During the last three^ winters the tiny 
tomtit, with his pretty^ blue head and delicate 
yellow breast, has made his appearance, and 
amongst the rarer visitors are fieldfares, red- 
wings, and the great titmouse. 

As for the pert little friendly sparrows, 
they are evidently aware that this is the 
land of plenty, so they hop about the old 
Courts with an assuming air of assured 
proprietorship ; and from house-top, door- 
sill, and projecting eave, chirp condescend- 
ing acknowledgments of the good things 
they enjoy. 

But why linger in the old Courts when 
the soft west wind is murmuring so in- 
vitingly amongst the branches of the tall 
trees ? Even the birds cannot remain quiet 
this bright summer's evening. See how 
they are flitting in and out the masses of 
dark green leaves, perching first here, then 
there, and peeping into every crack and 
crevice of the old bark. Now, many dart 
upwards to the topmost branches, whence 

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36 (S:ffvonit\t» of an (BIV Inn. 

they pour forth their summer gladness in a 
burst of joyous song. 

Let us go to the pleasant gardens — gardens 
so pleasant, not only in themselves, but also 
charming with all the associations of past 
ages ; so connected with the pleasant hours 
passed here by men both learned and cele- 
brated in our history. 

Every ancient tree has its story ; every 
sunny grass-plot could relate a little romance. 

How many a love tale has doubtless 
been told and listened to in these quiet 
alcoves .'' How many a courtly dame has 
gloried in the compliments paid to her 
beauty when walking on these smooth 
lawns ? 

There is every reason to believe that 
these gardens were designed and laid out 
in 1597 by Lord Bacon, who was then 
treasurer of Gray's Inn. 

Do we not all know how dearly this 
great and clever man loved gardens ? He 
says : " God Almighty first planted a 

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ffirag'B Entt. 37 

garden ; and, indeed, it is the purest of 
human pleasures ; it is the greatest refresh- 
ment to the spirits of man." 

In the accounts of the Inn about that 
date appear the following items : 

" 4th July, 1 597. Ordered that the summee 
of £'] 155". Afd. due to Mr. Bacon, for plant- 
ing of elm trees in the walkes be paid next 
term ; " and again, in the following year, 
there was an order made for the supply of 
more young elms, etc., the cost of which, 
as appears by Mr. Bacon's accounts, was 
;^6o 6i'. %d., a. very large sum in those days. 

We learn also from Howell's " Familiar 
Letters " and from Pepys' " Diary," that 
Gray's Inn Walks were at one time a 
fashionable promenade. Howell, writing 
from Venice in 1621, to a friend residing 
in Gray's Inn, says : "I hold your walks 
to be the pleasantest place about London, 
and that you have there the choicest society." 
Pepys seems to have frequently visited 
Gray's Inn Gardens as appears by his 

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38 ©j&rotttcfes of att ©lU Snn. 

"Diary": "4th May, 1662. When church 
was done my wife and I walked to Gray's 
Inn to observe fashions of the ladies, because 
of my wife's making some clothes." 

Cannot we picture to ourselves quiet 
Mrs. Pepys carefully scanning the gay 
apparel of the fine ladies as they passed to 
and fro ? daintily walking with the little 
mincing French step that the fair Lady 
Castlemaine had brought into fashion ? The 
good little wife absorbed in the many in- 
tricacies of plaits and puckers, weighing the 
several advantages to be obtained by the 
use of plain or damask stuffs, all unconscious, 
probably, that her volatile husband was as 
curiously scanning the black eyes and pretty 
faces that had such overpowering attractions 
for his wandering fancy. 

Pepys again says : 

"17th August, 1662. I was very well 
pleased with the sight of a fine lady that 
I have often seen walk in Gray's Inn 

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ffitrag's Knit. 39 

Dryden, in his "Sir Martin Marall," 
1 66 1, makes the following reference to 
Gray's Inn Walks : 

" Sir John Shallow. But where did you 
appoint to meet him ? 

" Mrs. Millicent. In Gray's Inn Walks." 

Addison, in the Spectator, selects the 
terrace in Gray's Inn Gardens as the place 
where Sir Roger de Coverley enjoys his 
morning walk. He describes the dear old 
baronet as "hemming twice or thrice to 
himself with great vigour, for he loves to 
clear his pipes in good air, to make use of 
his own phrase, and is not a little pleased 
with any one who takes notice of the strength 
which he still exerts in his morning hems." 

Charles Lamb, in his delightful " Essays 
of Elia," gives an interesting description of 
these gardens, adding, however, an indignant 
protest against the injury their beauty had 
received from the ugly pile of houses called 
Verulam Buildings, that had been recently 
erected. He says : 

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" I am ill at dates, but I think it is now 
better than five-and-twenty years ago that, 
walking in the gardens at Gray's Inn — they 
were then finer than they are now — the 
accursed Verulam Buildings had not en- 
croached upon all the east side of them, 
Gutting out delicate green crankles, and 
shouldering away one of two of the stately 
alcoves of the terrace. The survivor stands, 
gaping and relationless, as if it remembered 
its' brother. They are still the best gardens 
of any of the Inns of Court — my beloved 
Temple not forgotten — have the gravest 
character, their aspect being altogether" 
revered and ^law-breathing. Bacon has left 
the impress of his foot upon their gravel 

If the gardens give the summer charm 
to these old precincts, the grand old Hall 
is the glory, and may well be called the 
heart of Gray's Inn. 

Seventy feet in length, thirty -five in width, 
and forty-seven in height, it is in truth a 

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ffirae's Etttt. 41 

stately chamber, yet so harmonious are its 
proportions, so graceful are its details, that 
the spectator knows not which to admire 
most, the simple grandeur of its size, the 
delicate beauty of the old stained glass 
windows, or the rich deep .colouring that 
time has given to the oaken panelling as 
well as to the heavy oaken furniture. 

At the east end is a raised dais, the 
place of honour, on which stands the table 
reserved for the Benchers and their guests. 

The students dine' in the body of the 
Hall, and the great black oak tables and settles 
that they use were placed here in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. As they were then, 
so they are now, and so they may probably 
remain for as many more hundred years. 

In those good or bad old times, wood 
and labour were of comparatively little value, 
so furniture was then massive, and often 
decorated with a lavish richness of detail 
that a modern upholsterer would dread as 
much as he would admire, so great would 

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42 ©firomdcs of an ©IB Enn. 

be the modern cost both of the material 
and the work expended on it. How many- 
remnants of the tables and chairs of this 
veneering age will there be in another 
century ? 

Near the dais is a great oriel window, 
that beautiful characteristic of the Tudor 
period ; the old coloured glass, rich with 
the armorial bearings of the Society, and 
emblazoned also with names well known 
and distinguished in our English history. 

An elaborately carved oaken screen at 
the opposite end of the Hall conceals the 
entrance vestibule, and supports a Minstrel 
Gallery, another delightful adjunct to the 
large Halls of the fifteenth and sixteenth 

The screen itself is of quaint but hand- 
some design, and is especially interesting, 
as its decorations denote the period when 
it was erected. Short, thick Ionic columns, 
carved in arabesque with scroll ornaments, 
are surmounted by a range of semicircular 

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©ras'g Enn. 43 

arches. Above these is a balustrade of open 
carving enclosing the Minstrels' Gallery. 

Fortunately restorations have not been 
needed, nor have alterations been made since 
the screen was placed here. As years have 
rolled on, therefore, the solid old oak has 
acquired that richness of tone and beauty 
of colouring that time alone can give. 

Above the gallery is a large traceried 
window, and, as on the north and south 
walls are nine mullioned and transomed 
windows, the Great Hall is bright, well- 
lighted, and cheerful. 

The great space between windows and 
floor is oak-panelled, and enriched by the 
coats of arms of members of the Society who 
have filled the office of treasurer. 

There is something pleasant, but never- 
theless sad, in reading over the names of 
many, honoured in their time, still honoured 
here in this venerable Inn of Court, but 
yet how long ago forgotten by the world 

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44 €^vtmitle» of an ©IB Enn. 

Forgotten long ago, although as English 
laws are founded on precedent, and not upon 
written codes, celebrated English lawyers 
probably make more mark upon English 
history 'than great men of other professions. 

In every Government the Lord Chan- 
cellor is invariably a member of the Cabinet, 
and most of our leading statesmen have 
begun their career by studying, even if 
they have not practised, the profession of 
the Law. Still how very many there are, 
who, famous in their time, have passed 
away from all men's remembrance, and but 
for the names inscribed on these parental 
old walls, have struggled, gained the prize, 
and yet have again faded into the darkness 
from which they fought so hard to emerge. 

Truly the glory of this world is but a 
shadow, nought but a faint glimmer of a 
brief and perishing light. 

The fine open roof of the Hall, with 
its great hammer-beam timbers, is also a 
grand relic of the past; but the ancient 

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©rag's Imt. 4S 

reredos; or brass grate which once stood in 
the centre of the chamber, as well as its 
louvre-'— or smoke chimney— has been re- 
moved, and replaced by a modern stove. 
A great lapse from beauty, but, nevertheless, 
a change that contributes much to warmth 
and comfort. 

The exterior of the building has, un- 
happily, been modernised, and, in accordance 
with the bad taste that prevailed during the 
greater part of the last century, the vener- 
able brickwork has been covered with 

It seems extraordinary that this miserable 
pretence of stone should at one time have 
been so " universally adopted in England, 
because, while subject to the same dis- 
colouration and decay that injure stone in 
this damp climate, age does not bestow 
upon it either dignity or rich colouring. 

Happily, fine brickwork is now beginning 
to be appreciated. Not only is it rich in 
point of colour, but, skilfully used, the most 

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delicate ornamentation can be obtained. 
Witness, for instance, the glorious old 
church of San Ambrogio in Milan, and in 
many churches of towns in North Italy, 
where bricks have been used without any 
admixture of stone or marble. 

It must not be supposed that the noble 
and dignified old Hall of Gray's Inn has 
been used solely for the pleasures of the 

Many a gay masque, many a joyous 
revel has been held within its ancient walls. 

Royalty itself has frequently honoured 
by its presence the balls, banquets, marriage 
feasts, and other " merrie makings " given 
by the Honourable Society of Gray's Inn. 

Queen Elizabeth came here soon after 
her accession to the throne. 

The fair maiden Queen, then in the 
early bloom of youth, deigned to tread a 
measure on the floor of the Hall, and her 
beauty and grace so turned the heads of 
some of the more impressionable students, 

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(ffirag's Enn. 47 

that two of them became raving mad from 
love for their Royal and unapproachable 

Knowing how hopeless their passion 
was, these luckless young fellows resolved 
to put themselves to death. They could 
not endure their cruel torment ; like the 
Persians, they declared their hearts were 
burnt up with fire, and that life had be- 
come but a burden to them. 

The legend, however, only relates 
their sufferings, their struggles, and their 
desperate purpose. It is silent as to 
whether these fatal intentions were ever 
carried into execution. It may be hoped, 
therefore, that these love-sick youths re- 
covered in time from their love fit. The 
study of the law does not tend to foster- 
romance, and hard work in most cases is 
an effectual panacea against the blighting 
effects of hopeless passion. 

Standing in the old Hall, we can see, 
in fancy, the grand and picturesque entertain- 

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ment. We can see the young and graceful, 
though somewhat stern-faced girl, queening 
it so royally amongst her enthusiastic ad- 
mirers. How happy she is now in her 
consciousness of youth, and consequent 
beauty, in her royal dignity, a Queen at 
last in her glorious kingdom. Above all, 
especially happy in being at length free, 
no longer in daily terror of a prison or 
a scaffold. No longer dreading to have 
to seal by her blood her resolve to keep 
intact her royal position as heir to the 
throne, safe at last from the terror of 
being called on to lay down her life ere 
she would abjure her religion for that of 
her bigot sister Mary. 

No wonder the young Sovereign was 
then bright and happy. 

It is sad to think of the changes that 
years brought about. It is sad to think of 
the suspicious, cold-hearted, merciless old 
woman, signing not only the death warrant 
of the beautiful cousin of whom she was so 

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®fra»'s Entt. 49 

jealous, but also the death warrants of the 
men whom she had professed to love. 

Truly it may be said that envy, malice, 
and uncharitableness are the vices to which 
the great and prosperous are peculiarly ex- 
posed. Greatness and prosperity eventually 
produce the very whips that scourge those 
who have not been constantly chastened by 
care and sorrow ; for the Almighty bestows 
His good gifts far more equally than we 
mortals can in general either perceive or 

There is a peace of heart in lowly sta- 
tions that the great can but seldom, enjoy. 
The biography of celebrated monarchs and 
statesmen sufficiently shows that no rank, 
however exalted, is exempt from mortifica- 
tions and annoyances, trying alike to temper 
and to pride, and it is very evident from such 
histories that the noblest of all governments, 
the government of oneself, is far more diffi- 
cult of attainment for the exalted than for the 
humbler inhabitants of earth. 

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so ©firottfeles of an ©IB Etttt. 

Not only during Queen Elizabeth's reign, 
but at a much earlier period, the Inns of 
Court had been celebrated for the magni- 
ficence of their masques and revels. 

The first entertainment of this kind, of 
which there is any certain record, took place 
at Gray's Inn in the year 1525. 

Hall in his chronicle thus speaks of it : 

"A Plaie at Gray's Inn. This Christmas 
was a goodly disguising played at Gray's Inn, 
which was compiled by John Roo, Serjeant 
at the Law, twenty years past. This plae 
was so set forth with rich and costly apparel, 
and with strange devices of masks and mor- 
risches, that it was highly praised by all men, 
except by the Cardinal (Wolsey), who ima- 
gined the play was devised of him. In a 
great fury he sent for Master Roo, and took 
from him his Coif, and sent him to the Fleet, 
and afterwards he sent for the young gentle- 
men that played in the play, and highly re- 
buked and threatened them, and sent one of 
them, called Master Moyle of Kent, to the 

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©fras's Jhttt. 51 

Fleet, but by means of friends Master Roo 
and he were delivered at last. 

" This play sore displeased the Cardinal, 
and yet it was never meant for him ; where- 
fore many wise men grudged to see him 
take it so to heart ; and even the Cardinal 
said the King (Henry VIII.) was highly 
displeased at it, and spake nothing of 

This unfortunate play seems to have 
made a great stir at the time, for not only 
Hall, but Fox, in his " Acts and Monu- 
ments," thus alludes to the performance 
when writing of a certain Simon Fish, 
who also belonged to Gray's Inn. Fox 
says : 

" It happened the first year this gentle- 
man came to London to dwell, which was 
about the year of our Lord, 1525, that 
there was a certain play, or interlude, made 
by one M. Roo, of the same Inn, gentle- 
man, in which play partly was matter against 
the Cardinal Wolsey ; and when none durst 

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52 ©jbrottttlcs of an <3ia Inn. 

take upon them to play that part which 
touched the said Cardinal, this aforesaid 
Mr. Fish took upon him to do it. Where- 
upon great displeasure ensued against him 
on the Cardinal's part, insomuch as he, being 
pursued by the said Cardinal the same night 
that this tragedy was played, was compelled 
of force to avoid his own house, and so 
fled over the sea to Tindal." 

It is singular that neither Hall nor Fox 
makes any mention of the name of the play 
that had such unhappy results for the luck- 
less gentlemen who took part in it. 

The powerful Cardinal was a dread 
enemy. He brooked neither insult nor 
slight, and, when angered, was apt to carry 
out his vengeance with a completeness that, 
at the least, brought ruin on his victims. 
Happy indeed were they did they escape 
with their lives. 

The two offenders on this occasion paid 
a heavy price for their night's amusement. 
Their professiQQ^^£^]^^^ were destroyed 

©rap's Inn. 53 

for ever, their names were erased from the 
list of Gray's Inn, and never again appeared 
on it. To Roo, a Serjeant in the Law 
of twenty years' standing, such a penalty 
must have been a cruel blow. 

Hard work seems to have been seasoned 
with much amusement in the merry days 
of Queen Bess, for at no period do we 
read of so many masques, revels, and such 
like entertainments as during the reign of 
our maiden Queen. 

Men of all ages and ranks, even those 
devoted to the learned and severe study 
of the law, indulged themselves to the full 
in these amusements. Judges and states- 
men condescended to arrange and fashion 
the festivities, and occasionally indeed took 
part in them, nothing daunted by the fact 
that they not unfrequently ended in brawls 
and fighting. Men fought fiercely too in 
these turbulent times, and the arms then 
in common use were formidable weapons. 

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54 ffitirotttcfes of an ®Ift Mn. 

It was the custom to carry bucklers with 
a point or poke, as it was called, in the 
centre, from ten to twelve inches in 
length. Every haberdasher sold these 
bucklers, and their use became so much 
abused, that, in the eighth year of Elizabeth, 
a proclamation, was issued prohibiting the 
sale of any of which the poke exceeded 
two inches in length. At the same time, the 
length of swords was limited to one yard 
and half a quarter, nor was any dagger 
to have a blade above twelve inches long. 

In the records we have respecting many 
of these gay doings and magnificent festivals, 
Gray's Inn and the Temple appear to have 
taken the lead, and at last a sort of union 
was entered into between the two Inns. 
Over the great gates of the gardens of the 
Inner Temple appears the "Griffin" of Gray's 
Inn, whilst over the principal entrance 
in Gray's Inn Square, is carved in bold 
relief the "Winged Horse" of the Inner 

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©rag's Knn. 55 

A curious pamphlet, published in 1594, 
commemorates this union. It is entitled, 
" Gesta Grayorium. or the History of the 
High and Mighty Prince, Henry Prince of 
Purpoole, etc." 

It gives a very detailed account of a 
grand masque that took place on the 20th 
December, with a minute description of the 
rich and quaint costumes worn by the actors 
who took part therein. 

There is reason to think that Lord 
Bacon himself organised this revel, and 
also assisted in its preparation. 

On the said 20th December, it being 
St, Thomas's Eve, the Prince of Purpoole, 
as he is termed (Purpoole being the name 
of the property on which Gray's Inn was 
built), accompanied by a long train of cour- 
tiers and followers, marched in procession 
from his lodgings in the Inn to the Great 
Hall, where all things had with fitting dignity 
been prepared for his reception. 

Here he seated himself on a magnificent 

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throne, having over his head a canopy made 
of rich cloth of state. His great Lords 
and Councillors grouped themselves around 
him. Below the dais were seated his learned 
council and his learned lawyers, while the 
numerous officers and attendants of his 
Court were arranged becomingly in their 
proper places. 

The narrator dilates with much enthu- 
siasm on the magnificence and beauty of 
the spectacle, and we can well believe the 
effect must have been fine. Still, in these 
prosaic days, we find it difficult to under- 
stand the Lord High Chancellor and the 
Queen's Judges of the High Court of Justice 
giving much thought and time to an enter- 
tainment of this description. 

However, there is no doubt that in 
these same riotous, fighting, turbulent, and 
yet romantic times such spectacles did excite 
prodigious interest. Our chronicler con- 
tinues to relate, that common report had 
so cried up the merits of this especial per- 

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©rag's Inn. S7 

formance, that the expectation of strangers, 
both English and foreign, was greatly ex- 
cited, insomuch that it became necessary to 
repeat it, and to have many grand nights 
especially arranged for the entertainment of 
distinguished strangers. 

Unhappily however, then, as is some- 
times the case now, the crowd of spectators 
greatly exceeded the space provided for 
their accommodation. The multitude of 
beholders, indeed, was so considerable that 
there was not convenient room for those 
who were actors. Many of the performers 
among the Templarians (as they were then 
called) left the Hall so displeased and angry 
that their discontent resulted ' in blows, and 
the fighting became so furious that the next 
day it was found necessary to have an 
inquiry into the cause of " these disorders." 

Nothing daunted, however, by the ill- 
success of their opening night, the revellers 
organised another grand performance on the 
3rd January following, in honour of a great 

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58 ffii^rotttcIeB of an ®I» Enn. 

number of ambassadors, knights, ladies, and 
other worshipful personages, amongst whom 
were the Lord Keeper, the Lords Shrews- 
bury, Burleigh, Cumberland, most of the 
officers of State and of the Queen's house- 
hold, and it is said all these guests had 
convenient places and very good entertain- 

The Temple and Gray's Inn were now 
reconciled and had become friendly again, 
so the day after this entertainment the 
Prince of Purpoole, accompanied by the 
" Ambassadors of Templaria," and attended 
by eighty gentlemen of Gray's Inn and 
the Temple (each of them wearing a 
plume on his head), dined in state with 
the Lord Mayor at Crosby Place. 

The next grand night was upon Twelfth 
Night, on which occasion there was again 
a great company of lords, ladies, and 
knights ; and at Shrovetide the Prince 
and his company visited Queen Elizabeth 
at Greenwich. 

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©rag's Inn. S9 

After the performance Her Majesty 
" willed the Lord Chamberlain that the 
gentlemen should be invited on the next 
day, and that he should present them to 
her," which was done, and Her Majesty 
gave them her hand to kiss, with most 
gracious words of commendation to them, 
" particularly and in general of Gray's Inn, 
as an house that she was much beholden 
unto, for that it did always study for 
some sports to present unto her." 

The same night there was fighting at 
" Barriers," at which the Prince behaved 
so valiantly and skilfully that the prize, a 
jewel set with seventeen diamonds and 
four rubies, was presented to him by the 

The following order of Pension, to 
defray the expenses of the above enter- 
tainment, was made on February 9th, 
37th Elizabeth. 

" At this Pension it is ordered that every 
Reader of this House, towards the charges 

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of the shows and sports before Her Majesty 
at Shrovetide last year, shall pay ten shillings, 
and every Ancient six shillings and eight- 
pence, and every Utter Barrister five shillings, 
and every other Gentleman of this Society, 
three shillings and sixpence before the end 
of this term." 

There is a tradition in Gray's Inn that 
the screen already mentioned under the 
gallery in the Great Hall, as well as the 
dining tables now used in the Hall, were 
given to the Society by that Queen as 
tokens of Her Majesty's regard. 

Queen Elizabeth's memory is still held 
in much affection by the ever loyal subjects 
in Gray's Inn, and on the Grand Day of 
each term "the glorious, pious, and im- 
mortal memory of good Queen Bess " is 
still solemnly given in Hall. 

In 1613, "the Maske of Flowers was 
presented by the Gentlemen of Graie's Inn, 
in the Banqueting House, at the Court of 
Whitehall, on the occasion of the marriage 

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ffiraw's Inn, 6i 

of the Earle of Somerset with the Lady- 
Frances, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk." 

In " The Court and Times of King 
James I.," there is a letter from I. Chamber- 
laine, dated 23rd December, 161 3, in which 
he says : 

" Sir Francis Bacon prepares a masque 
to honour their marriage which will stand 
him in above ;^2,ooo, and, although he has 
been offered some help by the House, and 
especially by Mr. Solicitor Sir Henry 
Yelverton, who would have sent him ;^500, 
yet he would not accept it." 

The story of this masque was published 
the following year, with a dedication "to 
the verie honourable Sir Francis Bacon, 
His Majesty's Attorney-General." 

The dedication states : 

" That you have graced in general the 
Societies of the Innes of Court in continuing 
them still as third persons with the nobility 
and Court, in doing the King honour, and 
particularly Graie's Inne, which, as you 

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have formerly brought to flourish both in 
the ancienter and younger sort by counte- 
nancing virtue in every quality, so now 
you have made a notable demonstration 
thereof in the lighter and less serious 

The members of this learned Society 
did not always, it appears, amuse them- 
selves in so discreet a manner, for there 
is a letter in the same book, " The Court 
and Times of James I.," relating that: 

" The gentlemen of Gray's Inn, to 
make an end of Christmas, on Twelfth 
Night, at the dead time of the night, 
shot off all the chambers (small cannon), 
which they had borrowed from the Tower, 
being as many as filled four carts. 

" The King, awakened by this noise, 
started out of his bed, and cried : ' Treason ! 
treason ! ' So the City was in an uproar, 
in such sort, as it is said, that the whole 
Court was raised, and almost in arms, 
the Earl of Arundel running to the bed- 

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chamber, with his sword drawn, as to rescue 
the King's person." 

The following sketch of a ticket of 
admission to the masque at Gray's Inn 
on the 2nd February, 1682, is taken from 
Nichol's " Progresses of Elizabeth : " 




Li4 tACawcrice . C_y}£'f''^' 

This entertainment is thus alluded to by 
Luttrell in his diary : 

" On Saturday the 4th inst., the revells 
began at Graie's Inn. On 23rd January, 
Sir Richard Gipps, master of the revells 
at Graie's Inn, attended by his revellers 

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and comptrollers, went to Whitehall in one 
of His Majesty's coaches, with several noble 
men's coaches, and six horses, to invite the 
King and Queen, the Duke (York) and 
Duchesse, and the rest of the Court, to a 
mask at Graie's Inn, on Candlemas Day ; 
and accordingly there was great prepara.tion 
that day, diverse of the nobility and gentry 
in masks attended, who danced in the Hall, 
and afterwards were entertained with a 
splendid banquet." 

Evelyn had already spoken of these 
revels in terms of contempt and disappro- 
bation, terming them "solemn fooleries," 
and regretting that the King countenanced 
them and the deep play that usually con- 
cluded the evening. He says : 

"6th January, 1661-2. — This evening, 
according to custome. His Majesty opened 
the revells (at Lincoln's Inn) of that night, 
by throwing the dice himself in the privy 
chamber, where was a table set on purpose, 
and lost his ^100 (the year before he won 

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ffirag'B Emt. 65 

;i^i,5oo). The ladies also plaid very deepe. . . 
Sorry I am that such a wretched custome as 
play to that excess should be countenanced 
in a Court that ought to be an example of 
virtue to the rest of the Kingdom." 

During the troubled reign of James II., 
and during the first year of that of William 
III., men's minds were too harassed by 
political anxieties to allow them much time, 
or indeed inclination, to indulge in such 
costly and somewhat tedious entertainments. 
Money was scarce in England, and the few 
w^ho had any, cautiously concealed even the 
semblance of riches, not knowing what 
changes a few years might produce. 

Who, indeed, could predict with reason- 
able probability what King would rule over 
the land, or, indeed, which Church would 
gain the supremacy ? 

From this period these masques fell into 
disrepute, and the last record of so many 
gay revels is in 1773, on . the occasion of 
Mr. Talbot being elevated to the woolsack. 

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After a long and elaborate dinner, every 
member of each mess had a flask of claret, 
besides the usual allowance of port and sack. 

The Benchers then all assembled in the 
Great Hall, and a large ring was formed 
round the fireplace, when the Master of the 
Revels taking the Lord Chancellor by the 
right hand, he with his left took Mr. Justice 
Page, who, joined to the other Serjeants 
and Benchers, danced about the coal fire 
according to the old ceremony three times, 
while the ancient song, accompanied with 
music, was sung by one Tony Aston, dressed 
as a barrister. 

It is difficult to understand so dignified 
a personage as the Lord High Chancellor 
inaugurating his accession to office by such 
an after-dinner dance. 

Perhaps the extra flask of claret, follow- 
ing the usual port wine and sack, may 
have had something to do with so singular 
a proceeding. 

At any rate, after this remarkable festival. 

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©ra»'!S Eitn. 67 

all such hilarious proceedings ceased, and 
henceforward the great dinners were given 
with all befitting and solemn dignity. 

If the grand old Hall may be deemed 
the heart of Gray's Inn, then the jewelled 
crown that is the noblest ornament of this 
time-honoured abode of learning may be 
said to have been created by the distin- 
guished men who have grown up under her 
fostering care, whose studies have been 
matured within the shelter of her old walls. 

Names are inscribed here — on the panels, 
on the windows, in the hall — the very sight 
of which must fire the heart of many a 
student with pride and hope. 

However poor he may be, however lowly 
his birth, however destitute he may be of 
everything, save of the divine spark of 
genius and of that safest attendant upon 
genius — resolute perseverance — the path of 
success is open to him. 

The Temple of Fame is before him. 
He may seize the prize it contains, if he 

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will ; but the road is steep and hard to 
climb, and the thorns that beset it are many 
and sharp. 

What stories might be told of the early- 
struggles, of the early hardships of many 
of those who have ultimately attained the 
highest places in the State and in the Law ! 

How many of those whose names will 
never die while England has a history, 
might relate how keen, nay, how terrible 
had been their sufferings when they first 
started in their career. 

With what difficulty they obtained even 
necessary clothing. How hard it was to 
earn the daily bread. How many sacrifices 
had to be made, how many privations en- 
dured, ere the books could be bought that 
were absolutely essential for their legal 

And if it is thus hard for those who 
win, what tales of bitter woe and anguish 
might be written of those who labour and 
fail. Of those who, having; both talent and 

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ffirag'B Inn. 69 

application, yet lack, alas ! the peculiar 
genius that enables the great lawyer to 
grasp a subject or legal point with a 
rapidity, and a perspicuity that is truly mar- 
vellous to the unlearned ! 

What hours of anxious study, what 
fevered days and terrible nights must the 
unsuccessful, struggling man endure Con- 
scious, in all probability, of his own defi- 
ciencies, and yet hoping on — ever hoping on, 
not daring to confess even to himself that 
the studies of years have been of no avail, 
that the tree is barren, and will never bear 

These are the unhappy men who even- 
tually sink into the crowd of poor legal 
hacks. These are indeed the jackals who 
must cater and work for the lions of their 

Note. — Those who are interested- in the history 
and customs of this old Inn of Court are referred to 
an admirable work on the subject, namely, "Notes on 
Gray's Inn," by W. R. Douthwaite, Esq., librarian. 

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The most notable of the many distin- 
guished names recorded in Gray's Inn is 
that of Francis Bacon, afterwards Lord 
Verulam, Viscount St. Albans, and Lord 
High Chancellor of England. 

The son of a distinguished and learned 
gentleman, he was also happy in having 
in his mother a woman alike remarkable 
for her piety, her domestic virtues, and 
her great learning. Accomplished in no 
common degree in the charming arts of 
music and painting, few scholars of the day 
excelled Lady Bacon in intimate knowledge 
of Latin and Greek. 

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Slnti&ottg auB jFrancts JSacott. 71 

Francis, her second son, was born in 
1 561, and so early gave tokens of such 
exceptional talent that when very young 
he was honoured by the notice of Queen 
Elizabeth. Whatever the faults, errors, 
and meannesses of Queen Elizabeth as a 
woman, in her character of sovereign, in 
one respect at least, she showed herself to 
be well worthy to wear a crown, well 
worthy to govern a great people, inas- 
much as she possessed to a rare extent 
that inestimable quality in those who have 
to rule, the power of appreciating genius. 

Under no reign has learning been more 
fostered, under no reign have talented men 
so clustered round the throne, as during 
the reign of this maiden Queen. 

Elizabeth appreciated the powers of, , 
and knew when she had a distinguished 
statesman, and though she might ill-treat, 
him, show herself most niggardly towards 
him, not unfrequently betraying cruel in- 
gratitude, yet she ever respected his talents 

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and caused them to be respected by 

Both Francis Bacon and his elder brother 
Anthony were educated at Trinity College, 

Anthony was a man of good and even 
brilliant parts, but being the eldest son of 
Sir Nicholas Bacon, who, besides a great 
legal position, had large landed estates in 
several of the midland counties, young 
Anthony was not destined to any profes- 
siori. He spent much of his time in 
travelling, and thus became personally ac- 
quainted with most of the learned persons 
of the age. 

In 1579, being then twenty-one, to the 
annoyance of his family he resolved to 
reside entirely in Paris, and there he re- 
mained for some years. He then went to 
Bourges and Geneva, and, at the latter 
place, lodged in the house of the cele- 
brated Theodore Beza. 

From Geneva he successively removed 

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ittttljottp aiiB JTrancts Bacon. 73 

to Montpellier, Marseilles, Bordeaux, and 
Montauban, having become by this time 
a sort of recognised Government corre- 
spondent, constantly communicating to the 
English ministry intelligence of any im- 

In 1585 he went to Beam on a visit 
to Henry of Navarre, afterwards the great 
Henry IV. of France, and here made 
acquaintance with the learned Lambert 
Dansens, who, as a mark of esteem, dedi- 
cated several of his works to his English 

Here, too, began for poor Sir Anthony 
the great romance of his life. It was at this 
Court that he became acquainted with a 
beautiful French lady, whose many charms 
and winning graces broke the poor baronet's 
heart. With some rare and gifted natures 
love is an integral part of life. When it is 
clear that love must die, life in a great 
measure dies too, and so it was with Sir 
Anthony Bacon. 

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His love was unsuccessful ; so, sore- 
hearted and with broken health he left the 
scene of his brief happiness and of his 
enduring grief, and returned to England, 
never again to leave it. He took up his 
residence at Essex House, and after a time 
rallied sufficiently from his disappointment to 
resume his correspondence with some of his 
foreign friends. Amongst these his most 
constant and valued correspondent was King 
Henry IV. of France ; but the sorrowful love 
romance had destroyed the most brilliant 
portion of his existence, and Sir Anthony 
never quite recovered from the pain he had 
then suffered. 

His more celebrated brother was framed 
in harder mould. Before Francis was seven- 
teen he had not only traversed the whole 
circle of the liberal arts as then taught, but 
he had begun to perceive how fallacious was 
the recognised philosophy of the day. And 
these fallacies he subsequently effectually 

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JFVatwis JSacott. 75 

When the time came for leaving Cam- 
bridge, his father sent him first to France, 
and afterwards allowed him to make, what 
was called, the grand tour. 

So well did he profit by his travels, that 
he wrote a general view of the state of 
Europe before he was nineteen. 

He had intended carrying his researches 
still farther abroad, projecting a journey to 
Egypt and India, but the death of his father 
obliging him to return to England, he applied 
himself to the study of Common Law at 
Gray's Inn. 

Even in these early days, the lucidity 
of his reasoning, the keenness of his in- 
tellect attracted the notice of many leading 

The Earl of Essex in particular, who 
was a great discerner of merit, became his 
intimate friend, and endeavoured, though un- 
successfully, to procure for Bacon the office 
of Queen's Solicitor. 

Failing in this, Lord Essex, to console 

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his proUgd under such a disappointment, 
generously conferred on him a present of 
land to the value of ^i,8oo. 

Notwithstanding, however, the friendship 
of so powerful a patron, and notwithstanding 
the favour with which the Queen already re- 
garded him, young Francis had, during the 
earlier years of his career, many obstacles to 
contend against. 

Talents so remarkable, such great pa- 
tronage, and especially the favour of the 
monarch, created a host of enemies, all of 
whom decried the young aspirant with the 
spiteful bitterness and venom of envy. 
They represented him as an essentially 
unpractical enthusiast, whose head was filled 
with philosophical and speculative ideas. 
As one far more likely therefore to per- 
plex, than to forward public business. 

So many cabals resulted in his being 
unable to obtain for a considerable period 
either office or preferment, and he was 
pver forty years of age before Lord Burleigh, 

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JFtaiwts Bacon. 77 

who was then Lord Treasurer, bestowed 
upon him the place of Registrar to the Star 

This appointment was worth about 
^1,600, but its duties were both onerous 
and unpleasant. It so happened that to 
Bacon they became especially distasteful, 
for the critical moment arrived when he 
had to decide whether he would resign his 
preferment, or disregard every sacred claim 
of honour and friendship. 

Unhappily the choice he made at this 
juncture has tarnished for ever a name, that 
in other respects he rendered so illustrious, 
and ultimately it, in fact, proved the ruin 
of this great and gifted man. 

Even in the events of this world, how 
often do our own faults become the very 
lashes that scourge us. How frequently 
does the evil we have done to others return 
upon us fourfold. 

" Cast thy bread upon the waters," says 
the preacher, "and after many days it shall 

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come back to thee," and this applies to evil 
as well as to good deeds. 

During the larger part of Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign, both in Court and State, two 
great parties were for ever struggling to 
obtain supremacy. 

The two Cecils were at the head of one 
of these parties. 

The leader of the other was first the 
Earl of Leicester, and subsequently, his son- 
in-law, the Earl of Essex. 

Bacon's undoubted genius excited both 
the jealousy and the dislike of his relatives, 
the Cecils, and the intimate friendship he 
had formed with Lord Essex also much 
increased their covert animosity, although 
they did not care to exhibit it openly 
against so near a connection. 

Still, though outwardly courteous, Bacon 
was well aware that in them he had for- 
midable enemies, and he knew that his future 
prosperity mainly depended upon his being 
able to convert these enemies into friends. 

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d^ancts ISacon. 79 

Essex, with the generosity that was his 
distinguishing characteristic, had not only- 
exerted himself strenuously on his friend's 
behalf, but had also, as already mentioned, 
by a noble gift, sought to console him for 
his disappointment in failing to obtain 

But after years of prosperity and power, 
the fatal day came when the favourite was 
to share the fate of most Royal favourites. 
Essex was disgraced and fell into deep 

That a man could write as Bacon after- 
wards wrote of "Friendship," and of 
" Honour and Reputation," and yet permit 
himself, at the base dictates of ambition, 
to desert, nay, even to betray his earliest 
and most generous friend, must seem to 
every noble heart a fact almost incredible ; 
but it is unhappily an undoubted fact, that 
when Essex was at the bar of the House 
of Lords to be tried for his life, Bacon, 
in his professional capacity, appeared against 

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his generous and affectionate friend and 

Nor was even this the extent of his 
unworthy treason. 

For some time previously, and also after 
the unhappy favourite had expiated his 
follies by a shameful death, discontent and 
irritation had been spreading amongst all 
classes, and the Government grew daily 
more and more unpopular. 

At length the clamours of the people 
became so loud and deep, not only against 
ministers, but also against the Queen herself, 
that it was deemed necessary to make a 
formal vindication of the proceedings of the 

For this end all the blame, all the 
obloquy of every administrative failure must 
be thrown upon the dead man. 

Bacon accepted the discreditable, nay, 
disgraceful duty that had been assigned to 
him. He allowed himself to vilify the name 
of his benefactor, his early friend. He 

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JFtancis JSacon. 

agreed to cast the odium of treason upon 
one from whom he had accepted gifts, and 
for whom he had professed, and professed 
for years, the most ardent friendship. 

In a skilful and masterly paper he justi- 
fied the proceedings of the Government, 
and drew up a declaration of the treason 
of which Essex had been found guilty, and 
for which he had duly suffered. 

Bacon retained his place. He had as- 
sured his career. He had forced the world 
to recognise his transcendent abilities ; but 
ambition must have indeed hardened the 
heart of this man, ere she could console 
him for having thus cast from him every 
sentiment of gratitude, and affection, for 
having thus forsworn the honourable fealty 
that he owed to his benefactor and his 

From this moment, however, Bacon rose 
steadily, and, after the accession of James I., 
having published a brilliant pamphlet in 
favour of uniting the two kingdoms of 

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©Ijrotttcfes of an ®ia Enn. 

England and Scotland, he rapidly obtained 
considerable honour. 

In 1616 he was sworn of the Privy 
Council. He then devoted himself to re- 
ducing, and, in fact, recomposing the laws 
of England. 

When Attorney-General he distinguished 
himself by his endeavours to restrain duelling, 
a practice at that time very frequent and 
very fatal. 

In 1617 he was appointed Lord Keeper 
of the Great Seal, and the following year 
he was raised to the woolsack, and created 
Lord Verulam. 

In the midst of these honours, and not- 
withstanding, also, the press of business, he 
did not forget his studies in philosophy, but 
in 1620 he published his great work, "Novum 
Organum." In 1621 he was advanced to 
the dignity of Viscount, and as Lord St. 
Albans he appeared with great splendour 
at the opening of Parliament. 

But he had now arrived at the cul- 

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JFtatwts Bacon. 83 

minating point of his triumphs, and at the 
very moment when his power seemed 
greatest and his position most stable, his 
fall was near. 

A very few months after Parliament had 
assembled, a committee of the House of 
Commons was appointed to inquire into the 
abuses that existed in the Courts of Justice ; 
and, ere many sittings had taken place, the 
Chancellor was openly accused of 'corrupt 

The King, ever pusillanimous, and 
shrinking from giving support to a falling 
man, sent for Bacon, and, it is said, posi- 
tively enjoined him to submit to his peers, 
promising to reward him afterwards! 

The Chancellor, although he could have 
had but little faith in such promises, and 
foresaw his approaching ruin if he did not 
plead for himself, resolved, however, to obey 
the Royal command. 

He was silent therefore under the accusa- 
tions brought against him, and on the 3rd 

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May, 162 1, the House of Lords gave judg- 
ment against him, pronouncing upon him 
the following severe sentence : 

" That he was to pay a fine of ;^40,ooo, 
and be confined a prisoner in the Tower, 
during the King's pleasure. That he should 
for ever be incapable of holding any place, 
office, or employment in the State, and that 
he should never again sit in Parliament, 
nor come within the verge of the Court." 

At this distance of time the world judges 
him more leniently than he was then judged 
by his peers. 

Greed of money had never been one 
of Bacon's failings. He loved power, place, 
and the good things that money can pro- 
cure. He also loved his ease, and the 
affection and good-will of those about him ; 
but of the gold itself he took little or no 

It was, in fact, to this carelessness, and 
to an amiability that he carried to the 
extent of selfi§kzea«iE^ak»@as& that he owed 

dFrancts Bacon. 85 

his fall. For years all that he possessed 
had been at the service of those about 
him, and unhappily he was surrounded by, 
and had bestowed his kindness on persons, 
who were not only unworthy of it, but who 
had basely abused the confidence he had 
reposed in them. 

We are told by Rushworth, that the 
Chancellor (Bacon) treasured up nothing for 
himself or his family, but that he was so 
over-indulgent to his servants, that this in- 
dulgence reached the point of conniving at 
their evil doings. Both his servants and 
his dependents were therefore profuse and 
extravagant, and had at their command 
whatever he was master of 

Too late did Bacon perceive his error. 
It is related that, one day during his trial, 
he passed through a room where several 
of his servants were sitting. They rose up 
respectfully to salute him as he went by, 
but said the Chancellor, " Sit down, my 
masters, for your rise has been my fall." 

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There seems little reason now to doubt 
that the gifts the Chancellor was accused 
of taking had been enforced, and received 
by these underlings. 

It was these lamentable gifts that had 
caused him to be suspected of injustice, and 
yet it was subsequently proved that his 
decrees had been made for the most part 
with so much equity, that not one of them 
was ever reversed as unjust. 

"It was peculiar to this man," says one 
of his numerous biographers, " to have 
nothing narrow or selfish in his composition. 
He gave away without concern whatever 
he possessed, and believing other men to 
be of the same mould, he received with 
as little consideration." 

This opinion is probably correct in the 
main, but the greatest admirers of this 
talented and in many respects exceptionally 
great man, must admit that, ere he could 
have become unmindful of the honourable 
fealty he owed to his dead friend, the greed 

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JFtmtis JSacon. 87 

of power must have been strong in his 
heart, and that it was a selfish reluctance 
to take trouble that made him disregard 
one of the most stringent duties of the 
great, not only to be just themselves, but 
to ascertain that injustice is not practised 
by their subordinates. 

After a short period of imprisonment 
the fallen Chancellor was released from the 
Tower. The King ultimately remitted his 
fine ; and, after the death of James, he was 
again summoned to attend Parliament in 
the first year of the reign of Charles I., 
but never again after his degradation did 
Bacon take part in active life. 

At first, indeed, after his release from 
prison, he found himself in extreme poverty. 
All he valued in this world had gone from 
him. Place, position, money, and, above 
all, that consideration from others which 
had been so dear to his heart. 

So great at one time was his pecuniary 
distress, that he wrote a pathetic letter 

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to King James, entreating His Majesty's 
assistance. " Lest," as he expresses it, " he 
should be reduced to carry a wallet, and 
after having lived only to study, be forced 
to study to live." 

Notwithstanding the sorrowfulness of the 
letter, there lurks within it a vein of the 
humour that rendered him so delightful 
a companion, and through it all can be 
perceived the indomitable spirit of the 
man, that, even in the bitterest moment of 
his shattered fortunes, rose superior to the 
ruin that had overtaken him. 

The energy that had made him so power- 
ful in his public career did not desert him 
in his retirement. 

With all the ardour of his great heart, 
he loved his country home, his quiet lodgings 
in Gray's Inn, and the studies to which, 
during the last years of his life, he wholly 
devoted himself It was at this period that 
he wrote some of his most important English 
and Latin works ; and from these it is 

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iJ^ancts Bacon. 89 

evident that his thoughts were as free, 
and as vigorous, as they had ever been 
during the eariiest and most brilliant years 
of his career. 

Although he had been unhappy in having 
had many false and unworthy friends, one, 
at least, loved him faithfully, to the end ; 
and it was by him. Sir Thomas Meanty, his 
secretary, that the monument was erected 
to his memory in St. Michael's Church, St. 

Many have written the biography of this 
distinguished man, but the best evidences of 
his life are the works he has given to the 
world : works replete with noble thoughts ; 
works so grand, that they make us the more 
regret that there should be even one flaw 
to tarnish the golden lustre that shines 
around the name of one so brilHant, so 

It was in chambers in Coney Court, now 
called Gray's Inn Square, that Bacon passed 

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his last years, and where he wrote several 
of his greatest works. 

The aspect of these old houses — indeed, 
of these old chambers — bears traces, not 
only of the storms and sunshine that have 
passed over them in all this lapse of time, 
but they also speak to us powerfully of the 
vicissitudes of human life, and of the changes 
that are taking place around us yearly, nay, 

What anxiety and distress, what joy and 
what pain, have not these old walls wit- 

How many hearts have beat high with 
hope, or have been racked with anguish 
in the thoughtful gloom of many of these 
shadowy rooms. 

Bacon himself, though he bore so brave 
a front before the world, must have had 
many torturing recollections and regrets as 
he paced up and down these ancient 
chambers. But then, again, what noble 
thoughts came to cheer and support him 

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as he overcame the keenness of his pain, 
and fixed his mind on objects higher and 
grander than the passing events of human 

Thus generation after generation pass 
away, with all their joys and all their 

Each human being departs, and his 
name is no more known even in the spot 
where he dwelt ; but still the great squadrons 
of mankind are ever advancing, with the 
same delights, the same anxieties as those 
who have left this earth many hundreds 
of years ago ; thus every place is filled 
and emptied, and filled again in endless 

Truly life is but a magic-lantern, and 
the players therein are but fleeting 

Bacon died on Easter Sunday, the 9th 
of April, 1626, being then sixty-six years 
of age. 

In the December previous he had with 

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his own hand written his will. In it he 
writes : 

" For my burial, I desire It may be in 
St. Michael's Church near St. Albans. 
There was my mother buried, and it is 
the parish church of my mansion house 
at Gorhambury, and it is the only Christian 
•church within the walls of Old Verulam. 
For my name and memory, I leave it to 
men's charitable speeches, and to foreign 
nations, and to the next ages." 

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Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the 
Great Seal during the greater part of the- 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, was born at 
Chislehurst, in Kent, in 1510. 

Few men have enjoyed during a long 
and brilliant career a more unblemished 
reputation for probity, or have conducted 
themselves in troubled and dangerous times 
with more prudence and good discretion 
than this celebrated statesman and judge. 

He received his first rudiments of 
learning at home, and at a small village 
school in the neighbourhood of his father's, 
house ; but when still very young he was 
sent to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.. 

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94 ©Jirottwles of an ©10 Inn. 

Here he made great progress in all 
branches of useful knowledge, and then 
travelled over France, making some stay- 
in Paris, in order, as an old chronicler 
remarks, " to give the last polish to his 

Either this last polish or his natural 
gifts enabled him to turn his speeches 
with singular aptitude and felicity. Though 
resolute in proposing and carrying out any 
measure he deemed advisable, he spoke 
with so much prudence and tact, that he 
ever succeeded in retaining the good will 
even of his opponents. 

This is all the more remarkable, for 
never, perhaps, did party feeling run so 
high, never was party animosity more 
bitter, both with regard to politics and 
also on religious subjects, than during this 
period, when England was convulsed by 
the tremendous changes that were taking 
place in the Church, and by the savage 
persecutions that had been endured and 

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inflicted both by Protestants and by Roman 

Alas ! that men, while calling themselves 
Christians, should so distort and make of 
none effect the first principles of our Divine 
Teacher ! 

When Bacon returned from Paris he 
settled in Gray's Inn, and applied himself 
-with such assiduity to the study of the law, 
that he speedily became of note amongst 
the learned in that profession. His pro- 
found knowledge of many difficult points 
of law enabled him to be useful not only 
to the Government but also to the King 
(Henry VHL), insomuch that, on the dis- 
solution of the Monastery of Bury St. 
Edmund's, in Suffolk, King Henry con- 
ferred upon him several manors in that 

Two years afterwards he was promoted 
to the office of Attorney of Wards, an 
appointment of both honour and profit. 

Edward VI. confirmed him in this post, 

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and in the last year of that King's reign 
Bacon was elected treasurer of Gray's 

His great moderation and his consum- 
mate prudence preserved him safely during 
the dangerous reign of Queen Mary, al- 
though he was well known to be a staunch 

No sooner did Elizabeth come to the 
throne, however, than he was knighted, and 
the Great Seals of England having been 
taken from Nicholas Heath, Archbishop of 
York, they were delivered to Sir Nicholas 
Bacon in November, 1558, with the title of 
Lord Keeper. 

It is much to the credit of Sir Nicholas 
that he himself introduced a Bill into Par- 
liament for the purpose of defining and 
settling the position of Lord Keeper; al- 
though, had he chosen to be silent, and 
to procure for himself the additional title of 
Lord Chancellor, he might have obtained 
almost unlimited power. 

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Sir Ntci^olas ISacom 97 

But his motto was, and ever had been, 
*' Mediocra firma." He was content to be 
safe, and did not desire greatness. 

UnUke many celebrated men, he was 
unaffectedly modest, and devoid of self- 
seeking, so that while it was said of some 
other great personages that they seemed 
wiser than they were, the common voice 
of the nation agreed in this, that Sir 
Nicholas Bacon was even wiser than he 

To the Queen he was indeed a most 
valuable minister, and a most trusty coun- 
sellor, for not only was he as a statesman 
remarkable for a clear head, and wise, far- 
seeing sagacity, but he had marvellous skill 
in balancing factions, and it was thought 
he taught the Queen this same secret, the 
more important to Elizabeth, for being, as 
Her Majesty was, the last of her family, 
she was without,-', those supports that are 
ordinarily incidental to Princes. 

In Chancery, also, Bacon much dis- 

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tinguished himself by the very moderate 
use he made of power, and by the great 
respect he ever showed for the Common 
Law. But better than all, in an age of 
bigotry, when religious differences aroused 
in men every violent and cruel passion. 
Bacon showed that though his own religious 
opinions were strong, he could speak and 
act on that, as on all other subjects, with 
moderation and with strict equity. 

The main business of the session of 
January, 1559, was the settlement of religious 
observances, and no man had a greater share 
in this momentous and difficult question than 
the Lord Keeper. 

The speeches he made at this period 
are described by many contemporary writers 
as "most eloquent, solid, and excellent 
speeches ; " and at this day we can perceive 
that they were, as another old chronicler 
observes, "models of eloquence, profound 
wisdom, and conciliatory discretion." 

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Few men have left behind them so 
delightful a character as this famous states 
man and lawyer. 

Powerful and wise in public life, in his 
home he was the tender father, the affec- 
tionate relative, the indulgent and unos- 
tentatious friend. 

Though endowed with a keen appre- 
ciation of art, and gifted with a fine and 
graceful taste, as appeared by his house 
and gardens at Gorhambury, yet he never 
permitted himself to indulge in an undue 
or lavish expenditure. So simple and 
modest was he in this respect, that, when 
the Queen came to visit him at Redgrave, 
Her Majesty said she found the house too 
small for so great a man. 

" Nay, madam," said the Chancellor, 
" but it is your Majesty who has made 
me too great for my house." 

Yet, with his usual graceful tact and 
ready acquiescence in the wishes of his 

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Royal Mistress, he immediately built two 
small wings to his house. 

His health began to fail during the later 
years of his life, and he became distressingly 
corpulent ; but he was as diligent in his 
work, and his temper remained as kind, 
and his wit as bright as ever. 

After having held the Great Seal more 
than twenty years, this able statesman and 
faithful counsellor was suddenly removed 
from this life by the following accident : 

He was under the hands of his barber, 
and the weather being rather sultry, although 
February, Sir Nicholas, who suffered much 
from heat by reason of his great size, caused . 
the window before him to be opened. He 
presently fell asleep, but after a time, a 
current of cold air blowing upon him, he 
awoke shivering and feeling- very ill. 

"Why," said he to his servant, "did you 
suffer me to sleep thus exposed ? " 

The man replied that he durst not ven- 
ture to disturl^^.|,g„^^^.^^„^„^ 

Sir Ntcijolas Bacon. 

" Then," said the Lord Keeper, " by 
your civihty I lose my life." And so in- 
deed it proved. He was removed im- 
mediately to his bed-chamber, and was 
tended with loving care, but he expired a 
very few days after being taken ill. 

Sir Nicholas was twice married. By his 
first wife, Jane, daughter of William Fernley, 
he had three sons, who died young, and 
three daughters. 

By his second wife, Anne, daughter of 
Sir Anthony Cooke, a woman distinguished 
alike for her beauty, her piety, and her 
learning, he had two sons, of whom the 
youngest, Francis, became so celebrated as 
Chancellor, philosopher, and writer ; a man 
whose exceptionally brilliant gifts have 
thrown comparatively into the shade the 
far more elevated character of his father. 

Happy would it have been for the son, 
if, with his father's talents, he had inherited 
his father's unswerving integrity and noble 
sense of honour. 

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Far happier would have been the closing 
years of Lord Bacon's life had he, like his 
father, Sir Nicholas, dealt righteously with 
all men. 

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It is not unusual to find amongst ancifent 
families that the same Christian name is re- 
tained firom generation to generation, con- 
stantly descending for centuries in unbroken 

Sometimes this name is preserved in 
memory of a distinguished ancestor. Some- 
times from respect to some prince or power- 
ful patron who had conferred honour or lands 
upon the family. 

Many have supposed that the name of 
William came to this country at the time of 
the Norman Conquest. It has been ascer- 
tained, however, that long before that date 
it was in common use in Saxon families, 

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especially amongst those who inhabited the 
Northern Counties. 

This name William is a German word, 
and, according to Martin Luther, of com- 
pound meaning. 

Helm, signifying "defence;" and Kenhelm, 
" Defence of kindred." 

Willy, Villi, or Billi with the Germans, 
like Poly amongst the Greeks, before several 
names indicates "many," consequently Wil- 
helm, now softened into William, means 
"Much defence" or "Defence of many." 

Not only did the Normans, who had 
settled here when their Duke became King 
of England, call their sons after their vic- 
torious sovereign, but many of the old iords 
of the soil, who, wearied with Harold's 
tyranny, had gladly welcomed the advent of 
the foreign prince, gave their children the 
name now so much in vogue. In addition 
to this compliment to their new King, 
some of the Saxon Thanes and great 
landed proprietors moulded their rougher 

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Str wailiatn ^mtoiQitt. 105 

Northern surnames into courtly Norman 

Thus Gaskin, an old West Riding family, 
Normanised itself into Gascoigne. 

As time went on, this Royal name of 
William was regularly transmitted from 
father to son amongst those families who 
depended upon the Conqueror or his line, 
or who had received gifts of offices, lands, 
seignories, or privileges, until in a few years 
it became so common amongst those of high 
rank, that at a certain festival given at the 
Court of King Henry II., when Sir William 
St. John and Sir William Fitz-Hamon, two 
especial officers, commanded that none 
" but those of the najne of William should 
dine in the Great Chamber with them," they 
were accompanied by a hundred and twenty 
Williams, all knights. 

Sir William Gascoigne, Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench in 1401, the second year 
of the reign of King Henry IV., was the 
eighth Sir William in lineal descent, and 

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was succeeded, as we learn from Dugdale 
and Fuller, by seven more Sir Williams, 
all knights. 

The Chief Justice was born in 1350, 
temp. Edward III., at Gawthorp, in the 
parish of Harwood, between Leeds and 
K naresborough . 

Sir William was the eldest of five 
brothers. He married twice : first, Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heiress of Alexander 
Mowbray, and by her had an only son. 
Sir W^illiam Gascoigne, of Gawthorp, a 
brave commander in the wars under King 
Henry V. His descendant, the last Sir 
William of this branch, married Beatrice, 
daughter of Sir Richard Tempest, and had 
four sOns, all of whom died young, and one 
daughter, Margaret, his sole heir, in whom 
the Gascoignes of this line terminated. This 
daughter married, in 1552, Thomas Went- 
worth, of Wentworth Woodhouse, in York- 
shire, and brought great estates into that 
family. Thomas Wentworth was Sheriff for 

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Sir 312Stntam <!Sascotp:e. 107 

Yorkshire in the twenty-fourth year of 
Queen EHzabeth, and had, besides four 
■daughters, an only son, who became after- 
wards Sir Wilham Wentworth, and was the 
father of Thomas, first Earl of Strafford. 

The Chief Justice married, secondly, 
Joan, daughter of Sir William Pickering, 
and widow of Sir Ralph Graystock, Baron 
of the Exchequer. By this marriage Sir 
William had also an only son, James Gas- 
coigne, settled at Cardington, in Bedfordshire. 
A descendant of this James Gascoigne, the 
inheritrix of Cardington, married her distant 
cousin William, a younger son of the 
Gascoignes of Gawthorp. 

This William Gascoigne was Sheriff 
for Bedfordshire in 1506, temp. King 
Henry VII., and was Sheriff for Bucking- 
hamshire in the fifth year of King Henry 
VIII. He was subsequently knighted by 
Henry VIII., and became Comptroller of 
the Household to Cardinal Wolsey ; for the 
great Cardinal in many respects affected 

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Royal state, and succeeded in having the 
chief offices of his household held by nobles, 
or by men of gentle birth. This branch 
of the Gascoignes also terminated in a 
daughter, Dorothy, who married Sir Jarrett 
Harvye ; thus the direct descendants of the 
famous Chief Justice became merged in 
other families. Of collateral descendants, 
however, there are many ; Nicholas Gas- 
coigne of Lavingcroft, Sir William's next 
brother, having left a numerous family of 
sons and daughters, who married amongst 
the Percys, Latimers, Vavasours, etc. 

From the eldest son of this Nicholas 
descended a somewhat celebrated man, 
Richard Gascoigne, who was not only a 
learned antiquary and collector, but who 
has done good service to the history of this 
country by having brought before the public in 
1638 Mr. Dugdale, whose writings have give 
much interesting and important information. 

The greater part of the valuable collec- 
tions made by Richard Gascoigne is now at 

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Sir fflJStniam €lrascoigne> 109 

Wentworth Woodhouse, Yorkshire. There 
are also relics of the Gascoigne family at 
Ickwellbury, Bedfordshire. 

William Gascoigne became a student of 
the Law at Gray's Inn, and was early en- 
rolled a member of that learned Society. 
His career was both brilliant and rapid. 
Towards the end of the reign of King 
Richard II. he was already so eminent in 
his profession that, in 1398, he was made 
one of the King's Serjeants. 

There are records of many transactions 
at this period, all of which give proof, not 
only of Gascoigne's great abilities as a 
lawyer, but also testify to the esteem in 
which he was held on account of the 
fidelity and uprightness of his advice, and 
the invariable justice of his decisions. His 
great merits caused him to be appointed 
one of the Commissioners for Henry of 
Lancaster, Duke of Hereford, when this 
Prince was about to go into banishment. 

Gascoigne had to watch over the in- 

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terests and receive all moneys that might 
come to the Duke during his absence 
from England. A most onerous appoint- 
ment, involving not only considerable diffi- 
culty but also no inconsiderable danger, for 
in those turbulent days the law of might 
frequently warred most successfully against 
the law of right. 

So early as the second year of the 
reign of King Henry IV., Gascoigne was 
made Chief Justice of the King's Bench, 
and we find that in 1403 Judge Gascoigne 
and Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmoreland, 
were commissioned by the King to levy 
and assemble forces in the counties of 
York and Northumberland in order to 
quell the insurrection of Henry Percy, 
Earl of Northumberland. 

Somewhat later these Commissioners 
were also empowered to treat with this 
same rebellious Earl. 

When Archbishop Scrope and others 

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Sir Wiittimt USastoiqne. 

were taken in arms against the King, 
His Majesty would have had Gascoigne 
immediately to give sentence of death 
against the contuniacious Archbishop ; but 
the Chief Justice refused, resolutely declar- 
ing he would not pronounce such a sen- 
tence in so irregular and illegal a manner. 
This refusal brought upon him the King's 
high displeasure, but the people praised him 
much for his justice and his moderation. 

Again, when certain abbots, priors, 
knights, esquires, and other persons of 
distinction had been wrongfully accused, 
and were suffering imprisonment in con- 
sequence of the evidence of a perjured 
witness, Sir William detected the fraud. 
He then caused the false witness to be 
exposed and condemned, and obtained the 
release of the guikless persons. 

About this time, also, attorneys, by 
reason of their multitude, and from their 
malpractices, had grown to be a public 
nuisance. Chief Justice Gascoigne caused 

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©ftromclcs of an ©IB Inn. 

an Act to be passed limiting their number 
in every county. They had also to swear 
every Term that they would deal faithfully 
and truly by their clients, and could it be 
proved that they had not done so they 
were liable to be imprisoned for a twelver 
month and condemned to pay a ransom 
according to the King's pleasure. 

In the abstract of the Parliament rolls 
there is a long insertion made of a curious 
and important case referred in part to the 
judgment of the Chief Justice. William, 
Lord Roos of Hamalake, brought an action 
against Sir Robert Therwit, one of the 
Justices of the King's Bench, inasmuch 
as he had withheld certain manors and 
commons in the county of Lincoln, and 
that he had lain in wait with five hun- 
dred men to seize or apprehend the said 
Lord. Sir Robert confessed his fault 
before the King, and offered to abide by 
the award of two Lords of the com- 
plainant's kindred. 

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Sir auafllfant (S^ascotgne. 113 

These two Lords made a long judgment, 
and amongst other items enjoined that Sir 
Robert should make a great feast at Milton- 
le-Roos. That for this feast he should 
prepare two fat oxen, twelve sheep, two 
tuns of Gascon wine, and other provisions. 
That he should then assemble there all such 
knights, esquires, and yeomen as had been 
his accomplices. That they should then 
confess their fault to Lord Roos, craving 
his pardon, and offering him five hundred 
marks as compensation. Lord Roos should 
refuse this sum, but he should pardon them, 
and partake of their dinner. 

The arbitration respecting the land how- 
ever, which was the point of the greatest 
difficulty, was to be referred to Sir William 
Gascoigne, the Chief Justice. 

But the event which became so notice- 
able in legal and in historical annals, is 
a remarkable circumstance that has been 
described by many writers, namely, his having 
committed the Heir Apparent to the Throne, 

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114 €ffVonklt» of an ®IB Inn. 

Prince Henry, to prison for contempt of 

A story so extraordinary has of course 
been seized upon by dramatists and poets, 
who have so embellished the original history, 
that they have caused the fact to be doubted 
by some. However, the affair has been too 
simply related by some of our best historians 
and other grave writers to permit reasonable 
doubts that the circumstance did actually 
take place as recorded. 

It appears that a servant of Prince 
Henry's being arraigned at Westminster 
before Chief Justice Gascoigne for felony, 
the Prince, hearing of the matter, came 
hastily into Court, and commanded that 
his follower should be unfettered and set 
at liberty immediately. 

This demand was refused, the Chief 
Justice exhorting the Prince to be patient, 
for his servant was to be tried according 
to the ancient laws of the realm, adding 
that even in case the rigour of the law 

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Sir Wliiiism (SustoisM. us 

should condemn the accused, His Highness 
might still obtain the gracious pardon of 
the King, his father. 

Far from being appeased by this answer, 
the anger of the Prince seemed only the 
more inflamed, and striding fiercely to the 
Bar, he endeavoured to rescue the prisoner 
by force. 

Thereupon the Judge, with admirable 
courage and intrepidity, commanded the 
Prince to forbear and to depart on his way; 
but the Prince's rage at being thus thwarted 
made him quite beside himself, and, turning 
hastily towards the Bench, he either struck, 
or endeavoured to strike, the Chief Justice. 

At so unparalleled an insult the Court 
was stricken with horror, and many threw 
themselves around the Judge, fearing the 
Prince was about to slay him, but Sir 
William, nothing moved by the affront 
that had been offered to him, nor by the 
peril in which he was placed, never stirred 
from his seat, and with dignified calm. 

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and with a bold and assured countenance, 
said to the Prince : 

" Sir, remember yourself. I keep here 
the place of your Sovereign Lord and 
father, to whom you owe double obedience. 
Wherefore in his name I charge you, desist 
from your wilfulness, and from this unlawful 
enterprise. From henceforth give good 
example to them, who hereafter will be your 
own subjects. And now, for your contempt 
and disobedience, go you to the prison of 
the King's Bench, whereunto I commit you, 
and remain there a prisoner, until the 
pleasure of the King your father be further 

So dignified was the Judge's bearing, so 
noble and calm were his few coercive sen- 
tences, wherein were combined the paternal 
authority of the King, and the awful gravity 
of the Judge, that the Prince was instantly 

His Highness at once laid aside his 
weapon, and^d^m^^^ver^ce to the Court, 

Sir SJatniam ffiasmgjw. u? 

he straightway withdrew, and 'submitted to 
the disgraceful punishment — a punishment 
degrading indeed to a Prince, the Heir 
Apparent to the Throne, but well merited 
from the outrageous insult that had led 
to it. 

When some officious persons represented 
the affair to the King in such a manner 
that His Majesty might well have taken 
offence at it, the wise monarch, the wise 
father, defeated the ill-will of the informers 
by " thanking God, who had given him not 
only a judge who could minister, but also 
a son who could obey justice." 

Prince Henry had been carefully edu- 
cated and governed at the University of 
Oxford, and was afterwards for some years 
engaged with his father's armies in stilling 
the commotions constantly taking place on 
the borders of Wales. He seems to have 
done well also when first appointed 
President of the Council, for again our old 
chronicler tells us that the Commons voted 

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him thanks for his good employment of 
the treasure ; but, unhappily, before his 
Royal father's death he abandoned himself 
to dissolute courses, and made discreditable 
associates his intimate companions and 

After his father's death, however, on 
ascending the throne as Henry V., he dis- 
carded his unworthy followers, and applied 
himself with both assiduity and talent to the 
government of his kingdom. 

We learn from Tressel's continuation of 
" Daniel's Collection of the History of 
England, 1641," that the King, addressing 
himself to his former friends, said : 

"It was sufficient that for many years 
he had fashioned himself according to 
their unruly dispositions, and had wan- 
dered with them in a wilderness of riot and 
unthriftiness ; whereby he had made him- 
self almost an alien to the hearts of his 
father and allies, and had so disparaged 
himself, that in the eyes of mankind his 

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Sir isatntam ^ascoisn^ 119 

presence was grown vulgar and stale, and 
like the cuckoo in June, was heard but not 
regarded." The King then proceeds to 
relate in brief, that when one of his asso- 
ciates was summoned before the Lord Chief 
Justice he had interposed, and had even 
struck the Judge, and that for this offence he 
had deservedly been committed to prison 
by the Chief Justice. The King thus 
terminates his speech : " For which act 
of justice I shall ever hold him worthy 
of the place and of my favour. I wish 
all my judges to have the like undaunted 
courage to punish offenders of what rank 

It is greatly to the honour of Henry V. 
that the brave and good old Chief Justice 
retained his post until age and infirmities 
compelled him' to relinquish it. 

Sir William Gascoigne appeared in his 
place in Parliament and sat in Court in 
Westminster Hall during the first year of 
the reign of King Henry V. But his long 

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and arduous career had aged him before 
the allotted threescore years and ten that 
are given to man, and in 141 3 he quitted 
public life. 

He did not long survive his retirement, 
but, after a short illness, expired within a 
year of his resignation. 

His funeral was celebrated with the 
magnificence due to his eminent dignity, 
his honourable family, his large fortune, and 
his exalted fame. 

On a stately monument in Harwood 
Church, Yorkshire, where he was interred, 
he is represented lying at full length, at- 
tired in his judge's robes, with a hood 
drawn over his head. At his right side is 
a long dagger ; on the left, a purse fastened 
to his girdle. One of his wives lies beside 
him. There are the remains of an inscrip- 
tion cut in brass around the edge of the 
tomb. Unfortunately, during the Civil 
Wars much of this brass-work was torn 

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Sir fflSSiHtam ffiaswip*. 121 

In the east window of the same church 
there still remain some portions of the 
ancient glass, and in this glass can be 
traced the figure of a man arrayed in the 
scarlet robes of a judge. Both on his right 
hand and on his left is the figure of a 
kneeling woman, and above these three 
figures are the arms of the Gascoigne family, 
and also those of the Mowbrays and of 
the Pickerings. 

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William Cecil, Baron of Burleigh, Burghley, 
or Burley, for some time Secretary of State 
during the reigns of Edward VI. and 
Queen EHzabeth, and eventually Lord High 
Treasurer of England, was one of the ablest 
statesmen, one of the worthiest ministers 
that England, or indeed, any other country, 
has ever possessed. 

He was born at Bourne, in Lincolnshire, 
in 1520, and was educated at the Grammar 
Schools of Grantham and Stamford. 

He was then sent to St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where, finding himself asso- 
ciated with several young men of much 
talent, he was seized with such a vehement 

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ILora iSttrfetgfj. 123 

passion for learning, that it is related of 
him that he hired the bell-ringer to call 
him up every morning at four o'clock. 

Unfortunately, he applied himself with 
too much zeal to his studies, for, by neglect- 
ing to take due precautions to keep him- 
self in health, he brought on a severe 
illness, of which he was with difficulty 

Amongst other painful disorders, want 
of exercise caused his legs to swell to an 
immense size ; and his physicians always 
declared that this distressing illness laid the 
foundation of the severe attacks of gout 
from which he suffered greatly during the 
latter years of his life. 

However, during his youth, no amount 
of suffering could subdue his passion for 

He doubtless loved knowledge for the 
sake of acquiring knowledge ; but, at the 
same time, it is evident from the notes he 
made, that a keen desire to excel all his 

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124 ffiiirom'rtes of an ©ID Inn. 

companions and contemporaries was one of 
the chief spurs to his exertions. 

At sixteen he read a " Lecture on 
Sophistry," and at nineteen he had written 
a lecture in Greek, a very remarkable cir- 
cumstance, even amongst students at this 
time, as there were but few men, either 
at Cambridge or elsewhere, who were so 
perfectly masters of Greek that they could 
write and deliver a discourse in that lan- 

From Cambridge he proceeded to Gray's 
Inn, where he soon attracted attention, both 
by his energy and by the assiduity with 
which he applied himself to the intricate 
study of the law. 

He was happy in the possession of two 
excellent qualities, qualities not often found 
united in the same person, sound judgment, 
and a remarkably retentive memory. He 
strengthened these powers not only by in- 
defatigable application, but also by his habit 
of recording with his pen every incident 

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or remark that appeared to him worthy of 
notice, both when reading or from observa- 
tion. The prodigious number of notes he 
has left behind him, testify to the marvellous 
industry and care with which he devoted 
himself to any subject of interest. 

He also seized every opportunity of 
meeting and conversing with clever men, 
delighting much in free disputes upon all 
sorts of subjects, by which means he early 
became an eloquent and a correct speaker. 

He had originally intended to adopt the 
Law as a profession, but chance introduced 
him to the knowledge of, and led to his 
obtaining the favour of his Sovereign. 

Happening one day to pay a visit to 
his father, who was at that time Master 
of the Robes to the King, he met there 
two priests, chaplains to O'Neill, a famous 
Irish Chief, who was then at the English 
Court. Falling into a violent dispute with 
them,' touching the supremacy of the Pope, 
young Cecil displayed so much skill in the 

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argument, which was carried on in Latin, 
that the circumstance came to the King's 

Henry, who was one of the most learned 
princes of the age, and who delighted in 
learned people, desired to see the young 
man who had evinced such remarkable 
talent, and was so favourably impressed 
with Cecil's good manners and good con- 
versation, that he presently gave him the 
reversion of the post of Custos brevium. 

This early introduction to Court led to 
an alteration of plans with respect to the 
Law ; and as Cecil's marriage, which took 
place soon afterwards, with the daughter of 
Sir John Cheeks, brought him to the 
notice of the Duke of Somerset, he re- 
solved to devote himself to the career that 
was now open to him. 

The Protector, the Duke of Somerset, 
took him into great favour, and soon 
appointed him Master of Requests, a 
position of considerable importance ; and 

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in 1547 still further promoted him by- 
advancing him to the dignity of a Secretary 
of State. 

As another mark of regard the Protector 
allowed Cecil to accompany him to Scotland 
— a proof of affection that had well-nigh 
cost the young statesman his life. At the 
battle of Musselburgh Cecil must have been 
killed in the melde, , had not one of his 
friends saved him at the expense of losing 
his own arm. 

Within a year after the Scottish expe- 
dition the Duke of Somerset fell into dis- 
grace, and Cecil, sharing in the misfortunes 
of his friend and patron, was also sent to 
prison, where he remained three months. 
On the accession of Elizabeth, however, 
he was not only set at liberty, but he 
was reinstated in his office of Secretary 
of State, and in 1561 the additional appoint- 
ment of Master of Wards was conferred 
upon him. 

Notwithstanding all these dignities and 

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emoluments, his life at this time was a 
sorely troubled one. Not only did factious 
opposition distract both the Government 
and the Kingdom, but endless conspiracies 
were formed that threatened each one of 
the Ministry. Like the old fable of the 
dragon's teeth, no sooner was one plot 
discovered and crushed than another arose 
in its place. 

In Leicester also Cecil had a powerful 
and formidable rival ; but the favourite, un- 
fortunately for himself, was intemperate in 
speech, and rash and violent in action. 

Cecil, on the contrary, was remarkable, 
not only for the control he possessed over 
his temper during political controversies, 
but also for the moderation of the opinions 
he gave to the world. All men also agreed 
that he was eminently just. 

The Queen, therefore, was far too clear- 
sighted not to perceive how valuable a 
minister, how judicious a counsellor she had 
in Cecil. The Queen also saw plainly that 

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Cecil's interests were intimately interwoven 
with her own ; and this wise Sovereign 
perfectly understood that he was fitted to 
be her adviser and her minister whose 
personal welfare, and indeed safety, de- 
pended upon the success of the counsels 
that he gave. 

Thus, amidst all the political storms 
and tempests that convulsed these troubled 
times, Cecil, by his skill and prudence, 
steered both himself and his Royal Mistress 
safely through the rocks and shoals by which 
they were surrounded. Others rose and fell, 
but Cecil ever maintained his position, and 
year by year gained fresh honours. 

In 1 57 1 he was raised to the Peerage 
by the title of Baron Burleigh. He was 
soon afterwards appointed Lord High 
Treasurer, and the great distinction of the 
Garter was bestowed upon him. 

But while his public life was thus bril- 
liant, his heart was bowed down by domestic 
affliction. His first wife had lived but a 

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few years, and after her death he married 
Mildred, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke 
and elder sister of Anne Cooke, afterwards 
Lady Bacon. 

These sisters were remarkable for their 
beauty, their accomplishments, and their 
learning. They were well skilled in music, 
could converse in many foreign tongues, 
and in their knowledge of Latin and Greek 
were equal to some of the most famous 
scholars of the day. Both these fair and 
charming women not only obtained but 
succeeded in keeping the strong love of 
their husbands. 

After a married life of forty-three years, 
the loss of the wife he had so fondly loved 
rendered Lord Burleigh a broken-hearted 
man. His health gave way under the 
excess of his affliction, and, for the first 
time during his long and arduous career, 
he felt himself unable to perform the duties 
of his office. 

He became changed in many ways. 

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The brightness and cheerfulness of his 
temper left him. He grew silent and 
melancholy, and from the sad hour when 
she, who had been the angel in his house, 
was taken from him, he never regained 
that sunny hopefulness of disposition that 
in happier days had been one of his peculiar 

He entreated the Queen to allow him 
to resign, for he desired now to spend 
the remainder of his days in quiet and 
retirement ; but Elizabeth, well aware that 
his abilities were as brilliant as ever, was 
unwilling to part with her most trusted 

He yielded to the Royal command, and 
from this time laboured if possible more 
assiduously than ever, giving himself neither 
rest nor relaxation. Notwithstanding such 
prodigious exertions, and the acute sufferings 
he endured from attacks of gout, his life 
was prolonged beyond the usual age of 

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His last memorable public act was 
endeavouring to give peace to his country, 
when reasonable terms might have been 
obtained from Spain. 

These terms, though considered reason- 
able by Burleigh, were violently opposed 
by the Earl of Essex ; who, having gained 
some reputation by the sword, was unwilling 
to favour peace. 

He, in fact, expressed himself in such 
passionate language, that the Lord Treasurer, 
after listening for a considerable time in 
calm silence, was at length moved to say, 
" that the noble Lord seemed intent on 
nothing but blood and slaughter." 

Then he pulled out a prayer-book, and 
with a dignity befitting his age and ex- 
perience, and with an earnestness that 
deeply impressed those around, he pointed 
to the following words : " Men of blood 
shall not live out half their days." This 
was his last appearance in public. 

Never again did Lord Burleigh attend 

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either Council or Parliament, but even when 
confined to his bed during the last trying 
and suffering illness, he prepared and 
settled a new treaty between the Queen 
and the States, whereby this nation was 
relieved of an expense of one hundred and 
twenty thousand pounds per annum. 

Then, having filled the highest and 
most important offices of State, in the 
seventy-eighth year of his age, calmly and 
peacefully, about five o'clock in the morning 
of the 4th of August, 1598, surrounded 
by his children and grandchildren, his 
dearest friends, and by many old and 
faithful servants, he passed away from 
this life, full of years, rich in honours, at 
peace with all men, and humbly trusting 
by the mercy of his God, he should 
again see her whom he had so passionately 

The history of Burleigh's life is the 
history of England during one of the most 
anxious and troubled, but also one of the 

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most memorable and glorious periods this 
country has ever known. 

For forty years this great statesman 
guided the helm of Government, and al- 
though the Queen from time to time 
allowed others to have influence with her, 
yet whenever difficulties arose or matters 
occurred of more than ordinary moment, 
it was in her long- tried and faithful Minister 
that Elizabeth invariably confided. 

The moderate views, the calm foiresight 
and wisdom of this consummate politician, 
caused him not only to be regretted after 
his death, but to be valued during his 
life, a good fortune that but rarely falls 
to the lot of even the most celebrated 
political leaders. 

Burleigh deserved, and he obtained, the 
esteem and respect both of his Sovereign 
and of her people, and from the beginning 
to the end of his glorious career, however 
much men may have differed from him in 

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opinion, they ever acknowledged his honesty 
of purpose, his hearty love for his country, 
and his earnest desire to increase both her 
prosperity and her renown. 

At this distance of time, when subse- 
quent events have shown the fallacy of 
most of the hopes and fears that then 
influenced mankind, many may see reason 
to disapprove of his policy ; but it must 
be remembered that in the sixteenth 
century swords were more readily drawn 
than they now are. Measures that to-day 
seem needlessly harsh, were often forced 
upon statesmen of that period by the fears 
and also suspicions of their own partisans. 

Not only was Burleigh gifted with talents 
beyond the ordinary endowments of men, 
but in all outward seeming Nature had been 
lavish in her kindly gifts to him. Well- 
shaped, handsome, and graceful in person, 
he also possessed in no common degree 
that winning charm of manner that not only 

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gains the affection of friends, but which also 
adds such especial happiness to the inter- 
course of domestic life. 

His mode of living was such as became 
a man of high rank, entertaining with magni- 
ficent hospitality all those who, from rank, 
merit, and talent, were entitled to his 
acquaintance. To every one who came to 
his house he was courteous and cheerful, 
for he held that a host should not, by silent 
or reserved behaviour, mar the enjoyment 
of his guests. 

Whenever he could obtain a little relaxa- 
tion from the press of public business, he 
would hasten to the country, for his great 
delight was to improve and beautify both 
his family seat at Burleigh and his house and 
gardens at Theobalds ; but above all he 
loved Theobalds, and, as he expresses it, 
always fled there whenever it was possible 
to bury himself in its delightful privacy. 

Lord Burleigh had also two other places 
of residence — his lodgings at Court, and his 

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HorO iSurfeigij. 137 

house on the Strand. In his house in 
London he had fifty persons of his family, 
and his expenses there, he writes to a friend, 
were thirty pounds a week when absent, and 
between forty and fifty when present. At 
Theobalds he had thirty persons of his 
household. Besides the sum he gave away 
in charity, he directed that ten pounds a 
week were always to be laid out in keeping 
the "poor" at work in his gardens. His 
stables cost him about a thousand marks a 

In his service, or, rather, in his house- 
hold, he had ever young men of much dis- 
tinction, they deeming it an honour to 
serve him. 

Besides his customary hospitality, he 
several times entertained the Queen sump- 
tuously, and at an expense of many thousand 

He built three fine houses — one in 
London, on the Strand, another at Theo- 
balds, and a third at Burleigh. All these 

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houses were, though large and grand, still 
more remarkable from their neatness and 
general convenience. 

Though thus spending both liberally and 
magnificently, Burleigh was ever prudent 
and careful. He took good heed as to how 
his money went. He kept rigid accounts, 
and attended carefully, even minutely, to 
all domestic matters. 

Writing to a friend respecting house- 
hold arrangements, he says : 

" My house of Burghtey is of my 
mother's inheritance, who liveth and is the 
owner thereof. I am but a farmer; yet, 
when I am in the country, I must buy my 
grain, my beef, my mutton ; and, for my 
stable, I buy my hay for the greatest part, 
my oats and my straw totally." 

When in the country he loved to walk 
about and talk to the country folk, and 
would often stop to soothe\ little children 
in their troubles, or watch them in their 

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a,orD iSurlctgi^. 139 

play, so gentle was his temper, so abundant 
was his good-nature. 

At his death, notwithstanding his liberal 
and magnificent expenditure, and though 
he was so little avaricious that he made 
less during his forty years of office than 
most men at that period would have made 
in seven, so prudently had he managed 
his affairs, that he left about ;^4,ooo a year 
in land, ;!^ 11,000 in money, and about 
£14,000 in valuable effects. 

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Although Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief 
Justice of the King's Bench during the 
reign of James I., was not a member of the 
Ancient and Honourable Society of Gray's 
Inn, yet, as his portrait hangs in the 
Great Hall, and as he occupied himself 
much in the affairs 'of this Inn of Court, 
a few words respecting this eminent lawyer 
may not be misplaced here. 

There has probably never been a more 
consummate master of his profession than 
Sir Edward Coke. His interest in it 
amounted to enthusiasm. He loved to 
grapple with every legal difficulty, and 
brought to bear upon all its intricate 

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technicalities a dispassionate calmness that 
unfortunately failed him in the ordinary- 
affairs of life. For this reason he was 
even a greater man during the periods of 
his disgrace than when most triumphant. 

During these seasons of enforced retire- 
ment he could devote himself to a subject 
that he loved, and with which he was 
thoroughly conversant, whereas the too 
great energy of his character, whilst in 
the enjoyment of successful power, led to 
his giving way to intemperate violence 
both of expression and action. 

Like most distinguished lawyers, suc- 
cess came to him early in life. One of 
his first cases was a remarkable one, and 
brought him much credit. 

Mr. Edward Denny was Vicar of 
Northlinham in Norfolk, and the then 
Lord Cromwell, who lived in the neigh- 
bourhood, procured two persons to preach 
several sermons in Mr. Denny's church. 

Both these persons took the opportunity 

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thus afforded them of inveighing against 
the Book of Common Prayer, styling it 
superstitious and impious. 

For this reason, the Vicar, having learnt 
they had no license, when one of them 
came next to preach would have prevented 
him, but the man being protected by Lord 
Cromwell insisted on preaching, and did 

This proceeding caused warm words to 
pass between Lord Cromwell and the Vicar, 
the former saying : 

" Thou art a false varlet, and I like 
not of thee." 

To A^hich the latter replied : 

"It is no marvel that you like not of 
me, as you like those others " (meaning 
the preachers) "that maintain sedition 
against the Queen's proceedings." 

Upon this Lord Cromwell brought an 
action against the Vicar, de scandalis mag- 
natuvt. The defendant justified, thereupon 
the plaintiff demurred, and the bar was 

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held insufficient ; but upon a motion in 
arrest of judgment, that the declaration 
was insufficient, the Court gave judgment 
for the defendant. 

Lord Cromwell then brought another 
action, and so the matter went on for 
years until Coke became engaged in the 
case, and he so skilfully seized the oppor- 
tunity of managing and reporting it that 
his name was at once brought favourably 
before the public. 

His marriage with Bridgett, daughter 
and co-heiress of John Paxton, Esq., a 
lady, with whom he had ^35,000, and 
who was allied to some of the most 
powerful families in the kingdom, doubtless 
aided him in his career, although in after 
life he was wont to boast that he had 
triumphed neither by "pen nor purse," 
signifying thereby that he had never craved 
any man's help, nor had he ever opened his 
purse to buy any place. 

His perfect knowledge of the laws of 

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England, and his wonderful memory in 
recalling every technical circumstance bear- 
ing on or connected with those laws, was 
something marvellous. For this reason his 
judgments on all legal points have ever 
been held to be of exceeding value. 

Unhappily in criminal trials his warmth 
of temper and his violence of language 
tended much to injure his reputation and 
to lessen him in the opinion of the world. 
Still, in spite of these great defects, his 
unequalled talents forced men to yield to 
his judgment, and however much they 
might condemn him they bowed to his will. 

A notable instance of this occurred 
during the famous trial of Sir Walter 

Sir Edward Coke, who was then 
Attorney-General, conducted the case on 
behalf of the Crown, and expressed him- 
self with such energy against the prisoner, 
that Lord Cecil at length interfered and 
desired him to be more patient. 

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Much ofifended, Coke at once sat down, 
and preserved an angry silence. At length 
the Commissioners were compelled to entreat 
him to continue his address. For some time 
he refused ; then suddenly rising, with a 
power and skill that electrified all present, 
he recapitulated the charges. So powerful 
were his words, so lucid, were his arguments, 
that it was evident from that moment that 
the prisoner's doom was sealed. 

The scene that day in the Court at 
Winchester, where the trial took place, must 
have been alike impressive and sorrowful. 

The handsome, gallant Sir Walter 
Raleigh, the quondam favourite of the 
Queen, for years the popular hero of the 
nation, now worn and bent by age and 
many troubles, is standing at the bar, to 
be tried for his life, accused of treason 
against his Sovereign and against his 

Brave he has ever been, brave he 
is now, and the noble face, though pale 

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146 ©ttottfcfeg Of an ©IB Knn. 

and haggard, is stern and composed. Un- 
moved in look or action, he Hstens atten- 
tively to the words of one who is urging 
the Judges, with all the might of burning 
eloquence, to pronounce him worthy of 

Perchance for one moment a gleam of 
hope may have entered the prison-er's breast 
when he heard Lord Cecil speak, but if so, 
it must have been speedily dispelled when 
the Attorney-General addressed the Court. 

Spare in form, exquisitely neat in dress, 
passionate in action and emphasis, the fiery 
and searching eye of the great lawyer seems 
to scan alike the thoughts as well as the 
faces of those on whom he looks. And 
his voice, deep yet penetrating, has a ring 
that stirs men's hearts.and brings conviction 
in its very accents. 

With terrible minuteness, and with crush- 
ing legal skill, he states every circumstance 
that can tell against the accused, and each 
powerfully-worded sentence that fell from 

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Sir iEDUjarB ffiofee. 147 

the lips of the Counsel for the Crown must, 
to the friends of the unhappy man, have 
been as another nail driven into the coffin 
that awaited him. 

Long ere that famous speech was ended, 
hope and suspense must have been over 
for the prisoner. The evidence against him 
had been slender, but Coke's eloquence 
prevailed. Sir Walter was found guilty, 
and condemned to death. 

For a month he lay in prison, daily 
expecting his execution. Then he was 
reprieved, and sent to the Tower, where 
he remained a prisoner for sixteen long 

After his release, he organised an ex- 
pedition to Guiana, but, failing in this, he 
returned to England, where he was soon 
after seized, imprisoned, and beheaded, not 
for any fresh crime or misdemeanour, but 
solely on the strength of his former trial 
and condemnation nineteen years previously. 
He was executed in Old Palace Yard, 161 8, 

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©i&rotttcles of an #IB Sitn. 

and died, as he had Hved, a brave and 
resolute man. 

Coke's speech on this occasion, and also 
another made at the trial of Sir Everard 
Digby, are masterpieces of skill and in- 
telligence ; but, although such brilliant dis- 
plays of eloquence and learning increased 
his reputation as a lawyer, or rather as an 
orator, it was felt by the world in general 
that he had permitted himself a license of 
expression not seemly in one who held so 
high and responsible a position. 

These speeches, nevertheless, led to his 
promotion, for soon afterwards he was 
appointed Chief Justice of the Common 

This place fulfilled all his ambition, and 
here he would have willingly remained, but 
his bitter tongue, his caustic remarks, , his 
intolerance of the least opposition, made 
him many enemies, many detractors. 

His foes calculated that w6re he placed 
in a position o^-gr^^t^.^^go^er, and there- 

fore of greater prominence, his many faults 
of temper would, notwithstanding his pro- 
found legal knowledge, speedily lead to his 

They suggested, therefore, that his talents 
merited a higher post, and after a time 
they succeeded in having him raised to the 
more elevated, but, in those days, perilous 
position of Chief Justice of the King's Bench, 
or as he styled himself, Chief Justice of 

They calculated, and the result showed 
they were correct, that on account of the 
class of cases ordinarily brought within the 
jurisdiction of the King's Bench, the Chief 
Justice would ere long find himself at 
antagonism with the Court. 

The annals of the Law Courts at this 
period of English history are terrible to 
read. It is frightful to see on what slight 
grounds men were accused, tried, convicted, 
and executed for treason. 

Verily, in those days our laws appeared 

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to have been written in blood ; but, not- 
withstanding their severity, it was for having 
shown too great leniency in an affair that 
occurred about two years after he was 
made Chief Justice that Sir Edward lost 
the King's favour. 

This extraordinary and dreadful business 
was the discovery that Sir Thomas Overbury 
had been murdered in the Tower, and as 
light was gradually thrown on this dark 
matter, it became more and more evident 
that great and powerful personages were 
deeply implicated, not only in the foul murder, 
but also in other crimes of the most heinous 
and disgraceful description. 

In tracing and detecting the secrets of 
this black business, Lord Chief Justice Coke 
showed so much zeal and diligence that 
he succeeded in having apprehended and 
brought to justice some of the (apparendy) 
principal culprits, in spite, not only of the 
attempts that were first made to enable 
them to escape, but of the influence that 

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Sir iEDtoarlJ Cofte. 151 

was afterwards employed to stay their 

Richard Weston, who had been Over- 
bury's keeper in the Tower, was early 
brought to trial. At first he seemed re- 
solved to be silent on every subject, induced 
thereto, it is said, by an immense bribe from 
the Earl of Somerset, but at length he 
was prevailed on to plead. 

Poor wretch, the " persuasions " to which 
he yielded were the thumbscrew and the 
rack, but no sooner did he plead than he was 
speedily convicted and executed. Even at 
the foot of the gallows the miserable creature 
was not left in peace. Lord Clare, Sir John 
Wentworth, and Mr. Lumsden (friends of 
Somerset) attended him to the scaffold, and 
vehemently urged him to declare, in these 
his last moments, that a conspiracy had been 
concocted against Somerset. 

So evident was it that Overbury's murder 
concealed even darker secrets, and that 
these secrets implicated powerful and there- 

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152 ©ijrottwfes of an ©IB Inn. 

fore formidable personages, that Sir Edward, 
with his Keen legal foresight, early foresaw 
peril. So imminent, indeed, did he consider 
the danger, that he went to the King at 
Royston to beg His Majesty would appoint 
a commission- to assist him during the neces- 
sary investigations, and thus in some degree 
enable him to share the onus with others. 

It has been hinted by some historians 
that the King knew more about this hateful 
matter than he cared to acknowledge. 

James I. was a shrewd and prudent man ; 
he was timid also, and ever shrank from 
allowing his name to be involved in any 
way with affairs that would be distasteful to, 
or unpopular amongst, his newly-acquired 
people. His shrewdness and his fears, how- 
ever, led in several instances to his acting 
in both a cowardly and a treacherous manner. 

In this case, whatever may have been 
the knowledge the King possessed, he 
skilfully concealed his suspicions from the 
chief person implicated. When informed of 

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Sir lEBtoaiB Coftc. 153 

Overbury's murder, without a moment's 
delay he despatched a messenger to the 
Chief Justice, desiring him to arrest Lord 

Sir Edward Goke at that time lived in 
the Temple, and so methodically did he 
measure out his time, that every hour had 
its appointed usage. One of his rules was 
to go to bed at nine of the clock, and to 
rise at three in the morning. 

The Royal messenger arrived at the 
Temple about i a.m., and at once pro- 
ceeded to Sir Edward's lodging. Sir 
Edward's son was there, and also some 
friends, but the Chief . Justice was in bed. 

Mr. Coke therefore received the mes- 
senger, who said : 

" I come, sir, from His Majesty the 
King, and must have instant speech with 
your father." 

"Though you come from the King," 
said Mr. Coke, "you cannot and shall 
not see my father, for if he be disturbed 

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IS4 Cl^rottteles of an 0X0 Inn. 

in his sleep he will not be fit for any- 
business ; but if you will do as we do, you 
shall be welcome. In two hours my father 
will rise, and you can then do as you 

To this proposal the messenger was 
compelled to assent, so he waited. 

At three o'clock, Sir Edward rang a 
little bell to give notice to his servant to 
come to him. 

The Royal messenger then entered, and 
gave the King's letter to the Chief Justice, 
who at once made out the warrant for 
Somerset's apprehension. 

The messenger went post-haste back 
to Royston with the warrant, and on being 
introduced into the Royal presence, found 
the King sitting with his arm round the 
favourite's neck. 

When the officer with the fatal document 
entered the room, James was saying to 
the man whom he himself was causing to 
be arrested on a charge of murder : " When 

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shall I see thee again ? " the favourite being 
on the eve of his departure for London. 

Somefset, when arrested by Sir Edward's 
warrant, exclaimed indignantly at the affront 
thus offered to a peer of the realm, even in 
the presence of the King's Majesty. In 
his anger he appealed to James. 

" Nay, man," said the King, " if Coke 
sends for me, I must go." 

No sooner, however, was Somerset out 
of the room, than his wily master added : 

" Now the de'il go with thee, man, for 
I will never see thy face any more." 

It is difficult to understand what was 
really the King's" belief, or what were really 
the King's motives, on this occasion. 

To some persons he asserted that he 
did not believe Somerset had anything to 
do with the actual murder. Yet it was he 
' who caused his favourite to be arrested ; 
and when that arrest had been made and 
the Chief Justice had arrived at Royston, 
the King spoke with exceeding angry 

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156 ©iironwlcs of an ©ID Inn. 

energy, charging Sir Edward to prosecute 
the affair with the utmost diHgence. 

He was to search into the very bottom 
of the conspiracy, and to spare no man, 
however great he might be ; the King 
concluding his adjuration thus : 

" God's curse be upon you and yours 
if you spare any of them, and God's curse 
be upon me and mine, if / spare any one 
of them." 

Not only the Earl of Somerset, but 
his wife, the young and beautiful Countess 
of Somerset, was also arrested as being 
implicated in the crime; and whilst their 
trials were in course of preparation, many 
other persons of inferior rank were tried, 
condemned, and executed. 

On the 7th November, Mrs. Anne 
Turner, who had been about Lady Somer- 
set from her childhood, was tried, con- 
victed, and hanged. 

On the 1 6th of the same month. Sir 
George Ellways, Lieutenant of the Tower, 

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was also convicted, and was hanged on 
Tower Hill on the 20th. 

A week later, namely, on the 27th, 
James Franklin was tried, convicted, and, 
a few days afterwards, hanged. 

It might have been supposed that so 
many trials and executions showed no 
want of zeal on the part of the Chief 
Justice and the other Commissioners. Yet 
notwithstanding so sanguinary a list, Sir 
Edward fell into disfavour for not hunting 
down and giving over to the gibbet more 
of these miserable victims — victims who 
in all probability had been but the creatures 
and tools of those who were far more 
deeply implicated, and far more deeply 

It has been supposed that the friends 
of Somerset trusted that the nation would 
at length weary of so much bloodshed, 
and that time and political events would 
cause the recollection of one black crime 
to fade away. 

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At any rate, the delays which were 
for ever arising before Lord and Lady 
Somerset could be brought to trial, were 
mainly attributed to the unwillingness of 
many great personages (if not actually the 
Court) to have certain secret transactions 

At length, however, the trial took 
place. Lord Chancellor Ellesmere sitting 
as High Steward. 

The King's instructions were produced 
to the Commissioners, by which they were 
directed to try, first : 

" Whether there were good grounds to 
believe the Lord and Lady guilty, and if 
not, they were then to inquire after the 
authors of the conspiracy." 

The same instructions were afterwards 
produced to the Lords, both as evidence 
of the King's care and impartiality, and 
also as proof of the Commissioners' dili- 
gence in this business. 

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Lady Somerset, who was tried first, 
gave her judges but little trouble. Great 
as had been her position, brilliant as were 
her surroundings, to this young and beau- 
tifijl, but most erring and passionate 
woman, life had early lost its charms. 
She was sated both with its pleasures and 
its crimes, and when placed on her trial 
at once pleaded guilty. 

The next day, May 25th, her husband, 
Lord Somerset, was placed at the bar, and 
after a trial that lasted twelve hours, his 
peers pronounced the verdict of guilty. 

The Lord Chief Justice considered him- 
self entitled to, and, indeed, gained much 
credit from the nation generally, for the 
zeal and acuteness he had displayed 
throughout the whole progress of this 
terrible and mysterious affair ; but though 
the King had expressed himself with such 
vehemence when commanding the matter 
should be thoroughly sifted, from the 

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period of this trial Sir Edward fell into 
disfavour, both with His Majesty and with 
all the Royal favourites. 

From this moment they, one after 
another, endeavoured to accomplish his 
ruin. They seized every opportunity of 
misrepresenting his conduct to the King, 
and as, unfortunately for the Chief Justice, 
serious disputes had arisen both in the 
Court of Chancery and in the Court of 
King's Bench, the proceedings of Coke 
were impugned on all sides. 

His arrogant temper, his haughty 
manner of speech, the intolerance he dis- 
played to all who might presume to differ 
from him, made him many personal 
enemies, and created around him a very 
army of foes. 

The very fact, also, of his being so 
able a lawyer, so consummate a master 
of his profession, did but increase the 
rancour of those whom he had so haughtily 

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In all such encounters he almost in- 
variably proved he was right both in 
law and in fact, and then the bitter words 
of his scorn stung the vanquished like a 
whip of scorpions. 

There were very few persons, therefore, 
who would not rejoice in his humiliation 
and his fall ; but amongst his many opponents, 
the most inveterate, the most powerful, and 
the most rancorous, was Lord Villiers, 
afterwards Duke of Buckingham. 

Sir Edward had opposed with no small 
decision some matter that concerned the 
favourite's imperious will and pleasure, and 
Villiers exerted to the utmost his powerful 
influence to ruin the Chief Justice. 

These intrigues resulted in Coke's being 
suspended from his office on June 30th, 161 6. 
Sir Randolph Carew was commissioned to 
go Circuit, and in the following November, 
Sir Henry Mountague received the appoint- 
ment of Lord Chief Justice. 

It was during this enforced retire- 

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ment from Court and public life, that Sir 
Edward Coke's higher qualities exhibited 
themselves in their most favourable light, 
and he showed the world with what calmness 
and courage he could support adversity. 

The dignity that his vehemence had 
so often endangered during the days of his 
prosperity, now in the hours of adversity 
never failed him ; and however bitter and 
undeserved the attacks made upon him, he 
either passed them over without notice, or 
replied to them in words of calm mode- 

His many legal works, his many letters 
to friends at this period, indicate with what 
resignation, nay, even with what content, 
he bore the loss of the power that had 
been so dear to him. Both his actions and 
his words testify how cheerfully he contem- 
plated the end of all his ambitious projects, 
and looked forward to a life of completgi 

But so admirable a lawyer, so able a 

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judge, was not destined to be long unem- 

After his disgrace, men of far inferior 
talent had been placed in high stations ; 
but ere much time had elapsed it soon 
became evident that the new Ministers and 
judges were unfit for the places to which 
they had been appointed. 

When the ship is in danger or in a 
difficult position, the best pilot, however 
disagreeable he may be, must* be called to 
the helm ; and thus even those who had 
been most active in bringing about Sir 
Edward's fall, found it to their own 
interest to smooth the way towards his 
restoration to the King's favour. 

For some time there had been serious 
differences amongst the Ministers, and at 
length the quarrel between the Lord Keeper 
Bacon and Mr. Secretary Winwood rose to 
such a pitch that they refused to sit in 
Council together. 

It was at this juncture that the aid of 

M 2 

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so talented a man as the late Chief Justice 
was imperatively needed. 

Unhappily, Coke was not content to let 
matters take their course, and to remain 
quietly on the pedestal he had so deservedly 
gained for himself, namely, to rest on his 
great reputation of being the soundest and 
most skilful lawyer in the United Kingdom, 
He thought to strengthen his position by 
an alliance with the family of the still 
powerful favourite, the Earl, afterwards the 
Duke of Buckingham, the famous "Steenie." 
For this purpose he negotiated a marriage 
between his youngest daughter by his 
second wife, Lady Hatton, and Sir John 
Villiers, the Earl's eldest brother. 

Lady Hatton, a proud, violent woman, 
who was incessantly insulting and quarrelling 
with her husband, professed the greatest in- 
dignation that their daughter should be 
disposed of in marriage without her (Lady 
Hatton's) will and pleasure having been 
consulted in the matter. She forthwith, 

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Sir lEDtoarB ffiofte. 165 

therefore, carried off the young lady, and 
shut her up in Sir Edmund Withipole's 
house, near Oatlands. 

Sir Edward Coke, highly incensed that 
his authority should be thus set at naught, 
wrote to Lord Buckingham, requesting him 
to procure immediately, from the Privy 
Council, a warrant that would enable him 
to regain possession of his daughter. Un- 
fortunately, before the warrant could be 
conveyed to him, he had learnt where Miss 
Coke was, and, with his usual impetuosity, 
without waiting for legal powers, he and 
his sons proceeded to Sir Edmund Withi- 
pole's house and took the young lady away 
from thence by force. 

Upon this imprudent action, Lady 
Hatton, who, by her letters,' appears to 
have been beside herself, so frenzied was 
she by rage, not only appealed to the 
Privy Council, but, by her personal en- 
treaties, gained over the Lord Keeper 
Bacon to her side, he, probably, being 

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nothing loth to have again an opportunity 
of attacking his old enemy. 

Buckingham, however, was not a man 
to brook contradiction, and both he and 
his mother. Lady Compton, treated the 
Lord Keeper with extraordinary rudeness. 
Bitterly angry, the latter appealed to the 
Star Chamber, and also filed an information 
against Sir Edward Coke. 

Thus this foolish marriage became a 
State business, and for many months the 
war of words and of law processes raged 
with exceeding fury. As might have been 
expected, the favourite eventually had his 
way, and, somehow or other, the two ladies 
who had been foremost in the fight, Lady 
Hatton and Lady Compton, came at length 
to a good understanding. 

The marriage, therefore, was arranged. 
Sir Edward Coke was admitted to the 
presence of the King, and made a member 
of the Privy Council. 

On the Michaelmas Day following. Sir 

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John Villiers was married to Mrs. Frances 
Coke at Hampton Court, with all imaginable 

Sir Edward's plans had succeeded. He 
had been restored to the King's favour, he 
had married his daughter to the brother 
of the Royal favourite; but he paid dearly 
for these triumphs. Not only had he to 
bestow on his daughter the sum of ^10,000, 
to be paid down in money on the day of 
the marriage, but he had to assure to Sir 
John Villiers a rent charge of 2,000 marks 
per annum during his (Sir Edward's) life, 
and another one of ;^900 during Lady 
Hatton's Hfe. 

He engaged, also, to settle the manor 
of Stoke, in Buckinghamshire, a property 
he had destined for his other two daughters, 
on Sir John and Lady Villiers and their 

Lady Hatton also had from her private 
fortune, which was considerable, to make 
large settlements upon her daughter. 

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Lady Hatton, who, by her own showing, 
must have been an intolerable woman, self- 
willed, passionate, and overbearing, had by 
this time become reconciled to her son-in- 
law and his friends ; but she still pursued 
her quarrel with her husband with un- 
relenting acrimony. 

Many letters still in existence testify to 
the heat and resentment of both parties. 
At length the dispute became quite a public 
matter, many persons of consideration in- 
teresting themselves keenly on one side or 
the other. 

So fiercely did the warfare rage between 
all the partisans, that at one time Lord 
Houghton (formerly Sir John Hollis) was 
committed to prison for having, in con- 
junction with Lady Hatton, framed some 
scandalous libels respecting Sir Edward 

This most disagreeable and trying wife 
seems to have lost no opportunity of insult- 

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ing her husband both by word and deed. 
One of her means of annoyance was to give 
costly entertainments to the King, the Duke 
of Buckingham, and the whole Court, osten- 
tatiously omitting her husband. 

Not only was happiness far from this 
divided and discordant household, but the 
fluctuations in Sir Edward's fortunes were 

During the early session of 162 1, im- 
portant matters occupied the attention of 
the House of Commons ; liberty of speech, 
the increase of Popery, and many popular 
grievances were eagerly debated. 

Sir Edward spoke strongly and warmly 
on all these questions, and his speeches 
are much commended by Camden. How- 
ever, his views were not those either of 
the Court, nor of the favourite, and were 
indeed so ill received by the Government, 
that at the end of the year Coke was 
committed to the Tower; his chambers in 

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the Temple were broken open, and his 
papers were delivered to Sir Robert Cotton 
and Mr. Wilson for examination. 

Soon after his committal, Sir Edward 
was charged with having concealed circum- 
stances relating to the trial of the Earl of 

Notwithstanding the assertions of his 
enemies, nothing could be proved against 
him, so after a short imprisonment he was 
released from the Tower. He regained 
his liberty, but at the same time he was 
made to understand that he had signally 
incurred the Royal displeasure. He was 
turned out of the Privy Council, the King 
observing : 

" That Sir Edward was the fittest in- 
strument for a tyrant that ever was in 

Posterity does not endorse this opinion, 
because His Majesty's indignant remark 
was called forth by Coke's having resisted 

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an undue exercise of the Royal preroga- 

He was never again reconciled to the 
Court during the life of King James, and 
even when Charles I. came to the throne, 
efforts were made to keep him out of 
Parliament by pricking him for Sheriff. 

Sir Edward objected, and successfully, 
that it would not be seemly in one who 
had held the great office of Chief Justice 
of England, to attend the judges at the 

He was subsequently elected Knight 
of the Shire for Bucks, and during the 
sessions of 1628, distinguished himself 
more than any other man in Parliament, 
by his bold and skilful arguments in 
defence of the liberty of the subject, by 
the energy with which he urged upon the 
Government the necessity that existed for 
the redress of many grievances, and by 
the strenuous support he gave towards 

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maintaining the privileges of the House 
of Commons, 

It was during this same Parliament that 
he did the greatest service to his country 
that was, perhaps, ever done by a private 

He it was who proposed and framed 
the " Petition of Rights," and it was Sir 
Edward Coke also, who successfully vindi- 
cated the right of the House of Commons 
to proceed against any subject whatever, 
however exalted the position of that subject 
might be. 

After the dissolution of this Parliament 
in 1629, Sir Edward retired to his country 
house at Stoke- Pogis, Buckinghamshire, 
and there he spent the remainder of his 

Though his life was prolonged to the 
great age of eighty-six, he retained his 
marvellous memory to the last. Were a 
passage quoted from any of his favourite 

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authors, he would remember and mention, 
not only the context, but often the page 
in which the words would be found, and 
on all legal matters he would bring forward 
the papers he had written on the subjects 
in question. 

His industry in committing to writing 
everything that interested him was beyond 
example, and posterity will nevel* cease to 
admire his learned and laborious works on 
the laws of this country. 

He also wrote some religious pamphlets, 
for he loved much to study the great doc- 
trines of Christianity. He especially de- 
lighted to dwell on the sublime teachings 
of Our Lord, and during his last years, 
when the interests of this life, with all its 
pains and pleasures, were rapidly fading 
away, he, like Cardinal Wolsey, frequently 
lamented that he had not studied Divine 
laws with the same care and earnestness 
that he had devoted to the consideration 

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and thorough understanding of temporal 

Our Saviour's own prayer was the one 
he best loved, and the last faint words 
that were feebly murmured by his dying 
lips were : 

"Thy Kingdom come. Thy will be 

Sir Edward died September 3rd, 1634, 
in the eighty-sixth year of his age. 

He left behind him a vast mass of 
manuscripts and writings of all sorts, 
amongst them his will, in which he dis- 
posed of his very large fortune in the 
manner he judged best, between his chil- 
dren and his descendants. 

On the very day of his death his 
papers were seized and carried away by 
an order from the Privy Council. Amongst 
other valuable documents was this will, 
and it is a remarkable fact, as connected 

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Sir lEDtnarO ©ofte. 175 

with the wills of great lawyers, that this 
will of Sir Edward Coke's was never again 
found, to the great prejudice and detriment 
of his family and heirs. 

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In the long list of eminent lawyers 
who were members of Gray's Inn, are to 
be found the names of three of the 
Yelverton family : Sir William Yelverton, 
Justice of the King's Bench in 1443 ; Sir 
Christopher Yelverton, Justice of the .King's 
Bench in 1602 ; and also his son, Sir Henry 
Yelverton, Justice of the Common Pleas in 

Emblazoned on the glass of the great 
window in the Hall are the arms of Guido 
Fairfax, called Serjeant from Gray's Inn 
in 1463. Also those of John Ernelye, 
Chief Justice of the King's Bench in 1519; 

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of Sir Anthony de Fitzherbert, Justice of 
the Common Pleas in 1522 ; with those 
of Lord Riche, whose son Robert, also a 
member of Gray's Inn, was, in 161 8, 
created Earl of Warwick ; of Justice Stam- 
ford, Justice of Common Pleas in 1554, 
and of Dr. Thomas Wilson, Secretary to 
Queen Elizabeth in 1577, and who ulti- 
mately succeeded Sir Thomas Smith as 
Secretary of State. 

Amongst the most ancient escutcheons 
on the walls are those of Sir William Gas- 
coigne. Sir John Markham, Chief Justice 
of the King's Bench in 1400 and 1462, 
Lord Burghley, Sir Nicholas and Sir 
Francis Bacon, Thomas Moyle, Reader of 
the Society in 1534, and in 1542 Speaker 
of the House of Commons, Thomas Crom- 
well, afterwards Earl of Essex, of Henry 
Cromwell, the second son of the Protector, 
and of Sir John Holt, Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench in 1689. 

The following sketch of Lord Chief 

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Justice Holt is given in the fourteenth 
number of the Tatler : , 

"He was a man of profound knowledge 
of the laws of his country, and as just an 
observer of them in his own person. He 
considered justice as a cardinal virtue, not 
as a trade for maintenance. Wherever he 
was judge, he never forgot that he was 
also counsel. The criminal before him was 
always sure he stood before his country, 
and, in a sort, before a parent of it. The 
prisoner knew that though his spirit was 
broken with guilt, and incapable of language 
to defend itself, all would be gathered from 
him which could conduce to his safety, and 
that his judge would wrest no law to 
destroy him, nor conceal any that could 
save him." 

Sir John Fortescue, of whom mention 
has been made (an ancestor of the present 
Lord Fortescue), was Lord High Chancellor 
oi England under Henry VL 

In 1430 he was made Serjeant-at-Law, 

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in 1 44 1, King's Serjeant. The following 
year he became Lord Chief Justice of the 
King's Bench, and soon afterwards was 
raised to the dignity of Lord High Chan- 

But he lost all on the deposition of the 
King. He was ever faithful to his old 
master, and for many years, therefore, re- 
mained in exile with Queen Margaret, and 
her son, Prince Edward. 

When the Queen and the Prince re- 
turned to England, Sir John Fortescue 
accompanied them, but soon after the de- 
cisive battle of Tewkesbury, he was thrown 
into prison and attainted with other Lan- 

He was, however, subsequently pardoned 
by Edward IV. 

Sir John, who was a man of great 
learning and a sound lawyer, wrote many 
valuable legal works. One of these, entitled, 
" The Difference between an Absolute and 
a Limited Monarchy as it more particularly 

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regards the English Constitution," has passed 
through many editions. 

The last of these editions, with amend- 
ments, was published as late as lyig. 

Another of Sir John's works is " A Com- 
mentary on the Politic Laws of England." 

He also wrote many other works, some 
of which are still in manuscript It is in 
these papers that he describes the customs 
and practices of the Inns of Court. 

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Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester 
and Chancellor of England in the sixteenth 
century, was an able lawyer, a learned 
divine, and a shrewd statesman. 

Few men have risen higher by mere 
force of ability, few men have suffered 
greater changes of fortune, few have been 
more magnified and commended, and few 
more insidiously disparaged and outrageously 
treated than this famous Prelate, not only 
during his lifetime, but also after his de- 

The accounts given of him by con- 
temporary historians are so confused and 
contradictory, that it is difficult to arrive 

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at any just conclusion with regard either 
to Gardiner's character and disposition, or 
to fathom his motives as a churchman, 
or his measures as a statesman. 

Some writers, amongst others, Hall 
and Fox, describe him as a very "devil 
incarnate," of a most fierce and sanguinary 
disposition, delighting in bloodshed. They 
declare also that he was the principal 
inciter to all the cruelties practised during 
the reign of Queen Mary. 

Others again, according to Pitt and 
Persons, assert that the Bishop of Win- 
chester was a very "angel of light," being, 
of a singularly mild and compassionate 
nature, and so tender was his heart that 
it was through his influence and exer- 
tions that so many Protestants escaped 

All agree, however, that this celebrated 
man had great abilities, much learning, and 
also an amount of general knowledge 
considerably in advance of the age. He 

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had, however, many failings, and some 
vices, and either the natural bent of his 
mind, or the dangerous condition of his 
position, induced him to adopt a policy 
so tortuous, that even now it is difficult 
to trace the motives of some of the 
wisest and best, as well as those of some 
of his most injudicious and apparently cruel 

He was born at Bury St. Edmund's, 
Suffolk, but the year of his birth as well 
as his parentage he ever held secret. Some 
believe his parents were very obscure per- 
sons ; but Dugdale, a great authority in 
such matters, asserts that he was the ille- 
gitimate son of a prelate nobly descended 
and royally allied — namely, of Dr. Lionel 
Woodville, Bishop of Salisbury, and brother 
of Queen Elizabeth Woodville, consort of 
King Edward IV. Certain it is that for 
many years neither he nor his brother 
bishop, Bonner, born under the same cir- 
cumstances, ever used the surnames by 

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which they were afterwards known. One 
called himself Dr. Stephens, the other 
Dr. Edmunds, until Gardiner, on obtaining 
4)lace, assumed the surname he has made 
so celebrated. 

At Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he 
completed his education, Gardiner was early 
distinguished for his talents and his quick 
parts, especially for his extraordinary skill 
in Greek, and for the grace with which 
he spoke and wrote Latin. In process of 
time he applied himself to the study of 
Civil and Common Law, and his reputation 
both as a scholar and a lawyer speedily 
made him known to some of the famous 
men of that age. 

He was first taken under the protection 
of a generous and powerful patron, Thomas, 
Duke of Norfolk, but soon afterwards was 
brought to the notice, and then received 
into the household of Cardinal Wolsey, 
as secretary to that great statesman, then 
in the zenith of his power. He was thus 

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early initiated into the skilful yet dread 
policy that for so long a period made the 
powerful Cardinal the de facto ruler of this 

A mere accident gained for Gardiner 
the favour of the King. Wolsey and the 
Emperor of Austria had been at one time 
such intimate friends that the latter, when 
writing (which he did frequently) to the 
Cardinal, always signed his letters with 
his own hand, subscribing himself, " Your 
son and cousin, Charles." 

After the battle of Pavia, when the 
French King was taken prisoner, Wolsey 
unexpectedly changed sides, and from being 
a friend of the Emperor's, became a strong 
partisan of France's. This sudden change 
of sentiment may possibly have arisen from 
compassion, but Guiscard suggests another 
and less worthy motive. 

Some months previously, and for some 
unexplained reason, the Emperor had ceased 
to write personally to the Cardinal, and only 

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communicated with him through his secretary 
in the same manner as he did with other 
persons. According to Guiscard, Wolsey 
deeply resented this change and lapse of 
friendship, hence, therefore, his animosity. 

Soon after the battle of Pavia, the Car- 
dinal projected a treaty which was to change 
the aspect of affairs in all civilised Europe, 
which, indeed, it did. While this treaty 
was in progress, the King, coming unex- 
pectedly to More Park, in Hertfordshire, 
found Gardiner busily employed in framing 
several of the important articles. 

Few princes understood business or could 
transact it better than Henry; he rapidly, 
therefore, formed a favourable estimate of 
Gardiner's abilities. Not only did he 
appreciate the secretary's talents, but he 
was also pleased by his manner and con- 
versation, and, above all, admired the fer- 
tility of invention of which Gardiner had 
already given convincing proofs. In short, 

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Gardiner was the very man of whom the 
King at that moment had especial need. 

Henry was bent upon obtaining his 
divorce from Queen Katherine ; but though 
he had obtained many fair promises, from 
Rome, he had failed to induce the then 
Pontiff, Clement II., to do anything towards 
advancing his suit. It was in the highest 
degree expedient, therefore, to send a 
delegate to Rome who was not only a wary 
diplomatist, but also a shrewd and skilful 
lawyer ; above all, he must be one in whom 
the King could fully confide. In Gardiner 
were found all these essential qualifications, 
and the King did not hesitate to inform the 
Cardinal of the favourable impression his 
secretary had made. 

With all his faults, there was nothing 
mean in the character of Wolsey. 'He was 
truly great in this particular, that he feared 
no man's rise, and grudged to none the 
reward due to talent. Though overbearing 

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in temper, haughty in manner, tyrannical and 
revengeful in action, it was yet this noble 
quality that so strongly attached his adherents 
to him. 

Far from viewing with displeasure the 
favourable impression made upon the King, 
he aided his secretary's interests with all his 
powerful influence ; and in February, 1528, 
Gardiner, together with Dr. Fox, Provost 
of King's College, Cambridge, left England 
on a special mission to Rome. 

It is evident, from many documents still 
extant, that the entire confidence, both of 
the King and of his Minister, had been 
reposed in Gardiner. 

Respecting his conduct in Rome, his- 
torians are again at variance as to his 
motives ; but all agree in praising his 
talents, his dexterity, and his diligence. 

Some writers assert that he honestly 
endeavoured to carry out the King's and 
the Cardinal's wishes ; others, on the con- 
trary, maintain that, in order to secure his 

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own advancement, he betrayed the Cardinal 
in this embassy, and that for this end he 
urged forward with the greatest eagerness 
proceedings which he knew his master in 
his heart desired might be spun out as 
lengthily as possible. 

However, it must be admitted that such 
statements are barely compatible with the 
affection which Wolsey ever entertained for 
his secretary. 

When writing to Gardiner, the Cardinal 
calls him " the half of himself, than whom 
none was dearer to him ; " and in recom- 
mending him to the Pope, he says, when 
His Holiness hears him speak, it will be 
as if he heard the Cardinal himself. 

At any rate Gardiner spoke boldly at 
Rome. His diligence and activity also 
were so great, that between the conflicting 
interests and exertions of the various Courts 
of England, France, Spain, and Austria, the 
unfortunate Pontiff was so pressed and 
harassed that he fell dangerously ill. 

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The perplexities of his mind seriously- 
increasing the sufferings of his body, for 
some time he was like to die, a contingency 
that offered fresh occasion for the intrigues 
that were so rife at that period. 

Had the Pope died, every effort would 
have been made to procure for Wolsey the 
suffrages of the Conclave ; and at one time 
there appeared every probability that he 
would have succeeded to the Pontifical 
throne, but Clement recovered, and matters 
returned to their normal condition. 

No sooner did the Pope's health enable 
him to transact business, than the matter 
of the English commission was again 
pressed forward. An extraordinary amount 
of care and skill were now required, not only 
to obtain the Pontiff's consent, but to pen 
the commission in such terms as would 
satisfy Henry, and dispose the Cardinal 
Legate Campegio to come to England with 
a good disposition towards the affair. 

At length the important papers were 

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obtained, and Fox at once forwarded them 
to the King. 

The joy with which they were received 
by Henry, the Cardinal, and Anne Boleyn, 
was exceedingly great, and their satisfaction 
was expressed, not only by letters, but also 
by the valuable presents they made to the 
successful delegates. 

To Gardiner, however, were allotted the 
greatest honours, for though Fox had nomi- 
nally been the leading personage of the 
mission, yet Gardiner had in fact taken 
the chief part throughout the negotiations ; 
and so impressed was Henry by the talents 
evinced by his clever agent, that the latter 
was speedily recalled from Rome, in order 
to be entrusted with the management of 
the case before the Legatine Court. 

Indeed, so great at this time was the 
Secretary's influence, that without his advice 
the King was unwilling to commence his 
suit. No sooner had Gardiner arrived in 
England than he was made Archdeacon of 

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Norwich, and soon after, the King took 
him from Wolsey's service and made him 
Secretary of State, 

The suit had now begun ; but whether 
Wolsey secretly sided with Rome in this 
matter, or whether he was only suspected 
by Henry of so doing, the King ere long 
became furious with his Minister on account 
of the delays that were for ever occurring 
to hinder the progress of the divorce. 

The Pope's behaviour added much to 
the difficulties into which he was thrown ; 
and believing that the Cardinal, while ap- 
parently aiding, was in reality fomenting 
the troubles by which he was beset, the 
King felt convinced that either he was 
being duped by his Minister, or that his 
Minister was allowing himself to be egre- 
giously duped by the Court of Rome. In 
either case, Henry determined to trust 
Wolsey no longer, and only waited a 
favourable opportunity to effect his fall. 

This opportunity soon presented itself. 

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The successor who was needed was at hand, 
and again an accident furnished the King 
with the adviser that he so urgently 

Dr. Cranmer, a tutor in the family of 
one Mr. Cressy, of Waltham Cross, was 
with his pupils at their father's house at 
Waltham, when the King with his Court 
passed a night there during one of the 
Royal progresses. 

Drs. Gardiner and Fox were in attend- 
ance on His Majesty, and Cranmer had 
supper with them. 

Men's minds were so occupied with the 
Royal divorce that little else was ever 
talked of; and the two courtiers, being 
already well acquainted with the great re- 
putation for learning and solid judgment 
that Cranmer had gained for himself at 
Cambridge, sought to obtain his opinion on 
the matter, 

Cranmer modestly declined to give an 
"opinion," but said that in his poor judg- 


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ment it appeared to him that, if the 
marriage were unlawful, it was so by- 
Divine precept ; and if that were the case, 
then the Pope's dispensation could be of 
no effect either to confirm or annul it, for 
even the Pope could not make lawful that 
which God had declared to be unlawful. 
Instead, therefore, of continuing these long 
and fruitless negotiations with Rome, it 
might be better to consult all the learned 
men, or, indeed, all the Universities of 
Christendom, and then, according to their 
finding, the Pope must needs give judg- 

So much impressed were Gardiner and 
Fox by this advice, that the next day they 
laid the substance of it before the King. 

Some writers say that Gardiner wished 
to make it appear that the opinion came 
from him, but that Fox, either from 
generosity to Cranmer or from spite to 
Gardiner, took care to mention from 
whence it was derived. 

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At any rate, these observations of 
Cranmer's caused him to be presented to 
the King, as Henry had at once per- 
ceived the importance of the suggestion 
thus thrown out. 

Brilliant talents and an admirable 
judgment commanded respect, while the 
candour and uprightness of Cranmer's cha- 
racter secured for him the esteem of all 
who knew him. His rise in the King's 


favour was rapid, and honours were 
showered upon him. 

In after times Henry might differ from 
his Minister, but he knew he need never 
distrust him. The King often said that 
the Archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer) 
was the only Churchman he had ever 
known upon whom he could implicitly 


Unhappily, the haughty and hasty 
monarch occasionally succeeded in prevail- 
ing upon Cranmer to swerve from the 
strict line of wisdom and prudence to 

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which his opinions inclined, him, but 
although he yielded in action, the purity 
of his intentions and the honesty of his 
purpose were never doubted. 

The new adviser's rapid advancement 
was the signal of Wolsey's fall. 

While that powerful Minister was 
apparently enjoying the plenitude of his 
greatness, and triumphing in the magnifi- 
cence of his position, destruction came 
upon him unawares. Great and brilliant 
had been his rise, equally great and fatal 
was his tall. 

No sooner was his disgrace resolved 
upon than the Great Seal was taken from 
him, his vast possessions were confiscated, 
he was banished to his house at Asher, 
and informations were filed against him by 
the Attorney-General. 

Such a tempest of misfortunes broke 
at once over the head of the unhappy 
man that his calamities seemed without 
end, and the ruin of his fortunes was 

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speedily followed by the destruction of 
his health. 

When great men fall, their pseudo friends 
of prosperous dlays fall away also. Such 
friendship but blossoms in the sunshine, it 
ever withers and dies when clouds obscure 
their sun. 

In this time of cruel adversity, but very 
few of his many followers remained faithful 
to the once mighty Cardinal. Of these few 
the chief was his secretary, Thomas Crom- 
well, who proved his fidelity not only by 
his steady adherence to his master, but also 
by stoutly soliciting the Court in his favour. 

As Cromwell's rank did not entitle him 
to admittance to the King's presence, he 
was compelled to have recourse to one of 
the Secretaries of State. 

It was to Gardiner that he addressed 
himself, and it is to that Minister's credit 
that although, on account of Henry's hasty 
and tyrannical temper, the task involved 
considerable risk, the quondam secretary 

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did not desert his old patron and master, 
but interceded for him with skill, if without 
much heartiness. 

The unhappy Cardinal's letters at this 
time are most dismal. In one of them, to 
Thomas Cromwell, he says he has written 
it " with his rude hand and sorrowful heart," 
and he signs himself, " T. Carl''- Ebor 
misserrimus " (the most miserable Thomas, 
Cardinal of York). 

Gardiner at this time was devoting him- 
self to the difficult task of obtaining from the 
Heads of the Colleges and from the learned 
men belonging to the University of Cam- 
bridge, their declaration in the King's cause, 
a business that required no small amount 
of dexterity and artifice. 

His efibrts were successful. So brilliant 
an exploit must needs be rewarded, and 
his rise in the Church was rapid. In the 
spring of 1531, he was made Archdeacon 
of Leicester, and in November of the same 
year he was installed Bishop of Winchester. 

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" I have often squared" (meaning passed 
over) " with you, Gardiner," said the King, 
when he gave his Minister this valuable 
preferment, " but I love you never the worse, 
as the Bishoprick I now give will convince 

The newly-made Bishop sat with Dr. 
Cranmer, then Archbishop of Canterbury, 
when that prelate declared Queen Katherine's 
marriage with the King to be null and void. 
May 23rd, 1533. He was then sent to 
Marseilles to intimate to the Pope and 
the French King, that in case difficulties 
should be made respecting the divorce, 
the King of England would appeal to a 
General Council. 

On his return home he was called upon, 
together with all the other Bishops, to 
acknowledge Henry as Supreme Head of 
the Church ; and his pen was henceforth 
constantly employed in vindicating Henry's 
proceedings, both respecting that monarch's 
divorce and subsequent marriage, and also 

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with regard to his having thrown off the 
dominion of the See of Rome. 

Gardiner's writings on these difficult 
subjects obtained for him at the time the 
highest reputation. 

During this period of religious agitation, 
a strange spirit prevailed amongst all 
classes of people, of whatever denomination 
of religion they might be. 

Though all needed tolerance, none 
would grant it. On the contrary, intoler- 
ance and bigotry seemed to rule every 
man's heart. Even those who, whilst 
they were themselves undergoing its suffer- 
ings, had groaned the loudest under 
persecution, were, when relieved, equally 
loud in their opposition to the smallest 
indulgence being extended to those who 
differed from them in opinion. 

Whichever might be the party in the 
ascendant, its leaders were urged on to 
institute persecutions and trials, and to 
enforce executions whenever a doctrine 

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was started to which they did not 

Some writers assert that Gardiner was 
vindictive and cruel ; others, that he was 
forced tacitly to permit proceedings of 
which he disapproved, and of which 
he would willingly have mitigated the 

Others again say that the King's love 
of power, and his desire to show himself 
as a true son of the Church, although 
he had assumed her temporal headship, 
induced him to bear witness to his 
faith by severe measures, whenever her 
authority in doctrines was impugned by 
his subjects. 

Certain it is, that now began a series 
of religious persecutions that cast shame 
and disgrace upon all who professed the 
name of Christ. 

His holy Church on earth, far from 
being a tender mother to poor, suffering, 
and ignorant mortals, became a by-word 

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for cruelty and bigotry, a very Moloch, 
who desired the sacrifice of her children 
both by fire and by the sword. 

What can men deem are the chief 
attributes of the Almighty, that to give 
Him pleasure it is necessary to torture and 
put to death the children that His dear 
Son came to save ? 

It is sickening to read the list of those 
who suffered for religion's sake during the 
latter part of Henry's reign, and during 
the whole of the reign of his daughter, 
Queen Mary. 

A Frenchman writing at this time 
from England, tells his friend in Latin : 

" They have a strange way of managing 
in England, for those who are for the 
Pope are hanged, and those who are against 
him are burnt." 

Henry also each year became more 
tyrannical and overbearing. He brooked 
neither opposition nor contradiction. His 
humours were so capricious that even his 

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Ministers were constantly in personal danger, 
it being impossible to foresee how much in- 
volved the King might choose to consider 
them in the schisms that were being brought 
to the Royal notice. 

Gardiner was certainly once in very 
considerable peril. 

His young kinsman and secretary, Ger- 
main Gardiner, having been suspected of 
denying the King's supremacy, had been 
tried, condemned, and executed, and Gardi- 
ner's enemies sought to implicate the Bishop 
in his secretary's treasonable opinions. 

Those who view Gardiner's character 
mercifully, urge that in order to secure his 
own safety and that of his relatives, he 
was driven into assenting rather than being 
a party to the numerous cruel executions 
that now sullied the history of this country. 

Gardiner ultimately lost the King's 
favour, from having drawn up a paper of 
articles against Queen Katherine Parr. 

It appears that, as usual, Henry had 

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conceived some jealous suspicions of his 
Queen, and had directed the Bishop of 
Winchester to prepare these statements 
against her. 

This important document having been 
confided to Chancellor Wriothesley, in order 
that the Queen should be committed to 
the Tower, he by accident or design let 
it drop from his bosom. It was picked 
up by a friendly hand, and immediately 
conveyed to the Princess. 

Katherine so wrought upon the King's 
affection, that she not only succeeded in 
allaying his jealous fears and quieting his 
suspicions, but she also so excited his re- 
sentment against the writer of the accusa- 
tions against her, that from that day Henry 
would never again see Gardiner. 

It is also believed that this incident 
was the cause of the Bishop's name not 
being included in the list of the King's 

At one time, so high did Gardiner 

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stand in the King's estimation, that Henry 
had resolved not only to nominate him as 
an executor, but also to direct that he 
should be a member of the Council to 
whom would be entrusted the executive 
power during the minority of his son. 

Here again, however, is difference of 
opinion amongst historians, some writers 
asserting that it was not the animosity ot 
Queen Katherine Parr, but the friendship 
of the Duke of Norfolk and his family, 
that proved the ruin of Gardiner's fortunes 
at this period, 

Henry having become jealous of that 
powerful noble, seized upon every oppor- 
tunity of humbling his relatives and friends. 

But this, as well as most of the events 
of Gardiner's life, have been related by 
contemporary writers with such violence of 
partisanship, that it is difficult to ascertain 
the triith. 

To Gardiner, however, must be assigned 
the merit that both during the life, and 

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after the death of the King his master 
he ever spoke and wrote of him in term; 
of much deference and respect. 

Upon the accession of Edward VI. 
Archbishop Cranmer laboured earnestly t( 
establish the great work of the Reformatioi 
on a firm basis, and was very desirous t( 
obtain Gardiner's assistance, or, at an) 
rate, his concurrence in his plans. 

But this wily prelate would neithei 
concur nor disagree with Cranmer's schemes 
His ruling maxim had ever been to keej 
things quiet, and he asserted that this coulc 
not be done were any great alteration: 
made either in Church or State. 

He agreed in the wisdom with whicl 
the Archbishop sought to establish th( 
Reformed religion, and also in his desin 
to do away with superstitious practices, bu 
he saw grave objections to the innovation 
being attempted at present. 

The King's youth and feeble health 
the necessary absence of the Protecto 

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Somerset, who was detained in Scotland 
by military duty, made the future not only 
doubtful, but gloomy ; and Gardiner was 
of opinion that it would be injudicious to 
disturb the present Church government. 

However, Cranmer carried his point in 
so far as having a Royal Commission 
appointed for the purpose of visiting each 

The Bishop of Winchester, notwith- 
standing his love of peace, opposed this 
measure, and refused to allow the Com- 
missioners to enter his diocese. For this 
contumacy he was committed to the Fleet 

His imprisonment there was not severe, 
the Warden of the Fleet being his friend, 
neither did it last long, and when released 
he returned to his diocese, and addressed 
himself zealously but quietly to his duties 

This calm, however, was not of long 
duration, for within the year he was sum- 

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moned to preach in London on St. Peter 
Day, and his doctrines so offended th 
Council that he was sent to the Towei 
where he remained a prisoner during th 
remainder of Edward's reign. 

After Edward's death, Somerset visite 
Gardiner in prison with a view of effectini 
his release. 

Gardiner readily expressed his approva 
of all that had been done to establish th( 
Reformed religion, and promised for th( 
future obedience to Royal authority, but h( 
would not acknowledge that he had beer 
guilty of contumacy in the past. On this 
point he was immovable, protesting that he 
was innocent in every respect. 

He was brought before the Privy Council, 
and then three months were given to him for 

When this period had expired, as the 
Bishop remained in the same sentiments, it 
was resolved to proceed judicially against 

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him in order to deprive him of the See of 

He then refused to sign the articles that 
had been sent him previously, and to which 
he had in a measure assented, and he 
vehemently demanded to be tried as to 
the grounds of his imprisonment. 

But the Privy Council refused his prayer, 
and his bishopric was sequestrated. 

All these proceedings were much cen- 
sured as being contrary to the liberties of 
Englishmen, and contrary also to all forms 
of legal procedure. It was thought very 
hard that a man should be put in prison 
solely from a complaint having been made 
against him, and still more hard that after 
two years' durance, and without further in- 
quiry, articles should be put to him for his 

Such actions were quite indefensible 
upon any constitutional principles. 

Archbishop Cranmer greatly deprecated 

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this illegal harshness, for he foresaw the 
injurious consequences. 

Such ill-timed severity would inevitably 
drive men like Gardiner, Tonstall, and Day, 
who had already acknowledged the King's 
supremacy, back to the Church of Rome, 
and the progress of the Reformation must 
thereby be sorely hindered. 

And so it proved. 

During the few remaining years of 
Edward's life, Gardiner remained in the 
Tower, a prisoner, and yet not strictly 
kept, for during this period he wrote 
many controversial pieces, and several Latin 
poems, besides putting into verse some of 
the most beautiful and poetical passages 
in the books of Ecclesiastes, Wisdom, and 

On the 3rd August, 1553, Queen Mary 
made her solemn entry into the Tower, 
when Bishop Gardiner, for himself, and 
also in the name of his fellow prisoners, 

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the Duke of Norfolk, the Duchess of 
Somerset, Lord Courtney, and others of 
high rank, delivered a congratulatory speech 
to Her Majesty, who at its conclusion 
gave them their liberty. 

On August 8th, he, with Archbishop 
Cranmer, and in the presence of the 
Queen, performed the obsequies of the late 
King Edward VI. The young monarch 
was buried in Westminster Abbey, and 
the ceremonial was the English funeral 

The next day Bishop Gardiner again 
took possession of Winchester House, South- 
wark, after an imprisonment of rather more 
than five years. On the 23rd, he was 
declared Chancellor of England. 

On the 1st October he had the honour 
of crowning the Queen, and on the 5th 
of the same month he opened the first 
Parliament of her reign. 

He was also again restored to his 

p 2 

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academical honours, and was re-elected 
Master of Trinity Hall. 

Not only were distinctions and emolu- 
ments thus showered upon him, but the 
esteem that the Queen manifestly had for 
him, and the confidence she reposed in 
him, led to his being speedily endowed 
with an unusually large share of civil as 
well as ecclesiastical power. 

Mary was exceedingly anxious on three 

The first was to substantiate the legiti- 
macy of her birth by annulling her mother's 
divorce ; the second was to effect the restora- 
tion of the old religion in England, and to 
reconcile this country to Rome ; ^and thirdly, 
she eagerly desired to obtain the consent 
of Parliament to her marriage with Prince 
Philip of Spain. 

In all these difficult and important 
matters Bishop Gardiner aided her with 
marvellous sagacity and unflagging zeal. 

Thus it came to pass that the same 

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man who procured the divorce for the father, 
obtained for the daughter the reversal of that 

Now it was, in these days of triumph 
and success, that Gardiner gave evidence of 
his ambition, and of his time-serving nature. 
To preserve his ascendency over a weak 
and obstinate woman, he allowed himself to 
yield many points of which he disapproved, 
and then, having begun to swim with the 
stream, he found himself compelled to go 
faster and farther than he had intended. 

The Spanish match was as distasteful 
to him as it was to the bulk of the nation, 
foreseeing, as he did, that it would involve 
this country in great expense, and that it 
would not tend to increase either the 
happiness or the good disposition of the 

Unhappily, Mary had inherited obstinacy 
and violence of temper from her father, 
and a jealous and melancholy temperament 
from her ill-used mother. 

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All the early years of her life had been 
overshadowed by misfortune and insult, and 
she had been taught to believe that her 
sorrows mostly arose from the sinfulness 
of the nation in resisting the authority of 
the Church to which she belonged. 

Unattractive in mind as well as in 
person, she loved a man who cared but 
little, if at all, for her, who had only con- 
sented to the marriage from motives of 
policy, and whose morose and sullen manners 
embittered > the rare visits he accorded to his 

However great were Gardiner's errors, 
not only as a religious bigot, but as an 
unscrupulous and ambitious statesman, it 
must be remembered to his credit, that 
he was ever zealous in preserving what 
he deemed the constitution of his country, 
especially so in guarding her from the en- 
croachments of foreigners. 

To preserve his own power, he yielded 
against his judgment to the Queen's desire 

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for her marriage with Philip of Spain, 
but in drawing up the articles of the 
marriage contract he took care so to frame 
them, that they would not only be passed 
easily by the English Parliament, but also 
that the Spaniards should be entirely ex- 
cluded from any share in the Government 
of England. 

To Philip was granted the "Title" of 
King of England, and his likeness was to 
be united to that of the Queen upon every 
coin and seal, but Mary's signature alone 
sufficed to give authority to all deeds and 

No Spaniard could hold office in this 
country. ' 

The Queen could not be obliged to 
leave England, nor any child, should there 
be children, without the consent of Parlia- 

The Queen was to have a jointure of 
;^40,ooo a year from Spain, and ^20,000 
from the Netherlands. .Should the Queen 

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have only daughters, they were to succeed 
to her throne, and have from Spain the 
usual portions of kings' daughters: 

Should Philip survive the Queen, he 
was to have no share in the English 

Such stringent conditions appeared very- 
disadvantageous to Spain ; but so great 
was Philip's desire to obtain a foothold in 
England, that he yielded every point, be- 
lieving, probably, that when once firmly 
established in this country, his own in- 
fluence, combined with the power of the 
Church of Rome, would overcome much 
opposition and enable him to gain important 

Parliament passed the Bill, and all ob- 
stacles to the marriage being now removed, 
King Philip, attended and accompanied by 
a magnificent suite of nobles, and escorted 
by a large fleet, put to sea, and arrived 
at Southampton at the end of July, 1554. 

From thence he proceeded to the Palace 

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at Winchester, where he was magnificently 
entertained by the Bishop. The following 
day he was solemnly married to the Queen 
by that prelate in the Cathedral of Win- 

The newly - married pair made ' their 
entry into London with every circumstance 
of pomp and splendour. 

At Windsor the King was installed a 
Knight of the Garter, and whenever he 
and the Queen appeared in public they 
were received by the people with universal 

But this pleasant and joyful state of 
things was not to be of long duration. 

Philip speedily gave evidence of the 
distaste he felt for his bride, who, poor 
wornan, had not only the misfortune of having 
an unlovely and unlovable countenance, but 
was also afflicted with a peevish and jealous 
temper. She was well aware how little 
attractive she was, and therefore suspected 
and disliked every woman who approached 

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her. Her half-sister and heir, Elizabeth, 
was especially the object of her jealous 

This Princess, however, behaved with so 
much prudence and fortitude that she gave 
no loophole for the attacks of her enemies. 
Still, despite her care and prudence, and 
through the machinations of Gardiner and 
Cardinal Pole, she was sent to the Tower ; 
but she was saved from perhaps a worse 
fate by her brother-in-law, Philip of Spain, 
who interceded in her behalf. 

There is much reason to believe that 
of the two Philip much preferred the younger 
sister, and as Queen Mary was in bad health 
and her life most precarious, he hoped to 
marry Elizabeth after his wife's death. 

The unhappy Queen, in the bitter dis- 
appointment occasioned by her marriage, 
again turned to her Church for consolation, 
and in spite of the King's and the Chan- 
cellor's opposition, insisted upon Cardinal 
Pole's coming to England, armed with a 

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license under the Queen's Great Seal to 
exercise his functions as the Pope's Legate. 

Soon after Pole's arrival, the Houses of 
Lords and Commons presented a petition 
to the King and Queen, praying that the 
nation might again be received into the 
bosom of the Catholic Church. 

The Cardinal, after a lengthy oration, 
granted the petition, absolving the peoole 
of England, and declaring them reconciled 
to the See of Rome. 

But the joy attendant on this proclama- 
tion was speedily troubled by the revival 
of the sanguinary laws for the repression 
of what was now called heresy. 

These laws were speedily carried into 
execution with much rigour, and a bloody 
persecution was set on foot in almost all 
parts of the kingdom. 

Whether this persecution was actively 
concurred in, or only passively submitted 
to by the Bishop of Winchester, is a matter 
of doubt. On one side he ever showed 

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himself of the popular opinion by siding 
with Cardinal Pole when they sat together 
on various commissions. On the other hand, 
he saved the lives of many Protestants by 
merely locking them up until quieter and 
more peaceable days should come. 

Th.tise were indeed dismal and dreadful 
time?,. A frightful religious zeal prevailed 
in .he minds of men, inducing them, under 
colour of promoting the Gospel, to act 
precisely contrary to its spirit. 

Gardiner, no doubt, had his share, and 
a large one, in these barbarous proceedings ; 
but the whole reproach of these savage 
cruelties must not rest upon his memory. 

It is certain that when there were hopes 
of an heir to the throne, the Chancellor 
induced the Queen to restore several 
prisoners to liberty. He went in person 
to the Tower on January i8th, 1555, and 
released the Archbishop of York, Sir 
Edward Rogers, Sir James Crofts, Sir 
Nicholas Throckmorton, Sir Edward War- 

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ner, Sir Peorge Harper, Sir William 
Saintlow, Sir Gawin Carew, Sir Andrew 
Dudley, William Gibs, Cuthbert Vaughan, 
John Harrington, John Tremain, and 
others of less note. 

It must not be forgotten, also, that 
during Mary's second Parliament, far from 
advocating the stringent laws that were in 
course of preparation against heretics, as 
persons of the Reformed religion were now 
called, he endeavoured to mitigate their 
severity ; but in this, as in other matters, . 
he was borne on by the stream of Royal 
and popular opinion, and, perhaps, com- 
pelled to acquiesce in proceedings of which 
he disapproved. 

Thus Henry's, severities and injustice 
were now emulated and surpassed by 
Mary's severities and cruelty. 

If Gardiner disapproved in his heart of 
the persecution of heretics, his clemency or 
merciful inclinations did but little or nothing 
towards diminishing the frightful number of 

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blazing piles that day by day consumed 
the bodies of miserable victims of religious 

Tortured by jealous love, unblessed with 
children, the unhappy Mary turned with 
increased fervour to religion as her only 
solace. Convinced, as she was, that the 
Church alone could afford relief to her 
sorrows, the bigotry of her nature and 
education demanded the holocaust of thou- 
sands of victims to appease the anger of 
an offended Deity. 

Violent and obstinate, her Ministers, 
even had they wished to oppose her, 
could not, without peril to themselves, 
have resisted her stubborn resolution to 
have her way. 

Unhappily then for England, her 
Ministers were both yielding and unscru- 

Not only was the Queen relentless 
in her resolve to exterminate heresy, but 
if the Bishop of Winchester relaxed in 

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zeal, Bishop Bonner, and William, Marquis 
of Winchester (who for a time held the 
Great Seal), were eager to show their 
love for their Church by the torture they 
inflicted on her enemies. 

Gardiner, whatever may have been his 
personal wishes, also yielded to the 
pressure put upon him ; and by his 
dexterity and brilliant talents made him- 
self of inestimable value to the Queen, 
and by so doing secured for himself 
supremacy in the Council, and also kept 
away other pretendants, especially Cardinal 
Pole, who was a formidable rival. 

But if, as the writers who view him 
favourably assert, the Bishop of Winchester 
was thus impelled by the temper of his 
Royal mistress, and by a series of cir- 
cumstances beyond his control, to acquiesce 
in actions of which he disapproved, what 
must be thought of the conscience of a 
man, who as statesman and Churchman 
permitted tortures to be inflicted, and 

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executions to take place, that have made 
the reign of Mary a by-word of blood- 
shed and cruelty, and have covered the 
memories of this monarch and her Ministers 
with indelible disgrace ? 

The land was deluged in blood. The 
smoke of burning human beings darkened 
the air, as it rose in hideous sacrifice to 
the Almighty Father, and the shrieks of 
tortured victims, the prayers of martyrs 
at the stake, ascended daily to heaven in 
one great agonised cry for mercy — and for 

For a time England seemed as one 
stunned by the frequency of such unusual 
and horrible spectacles, but by degrees 
the mighty spirit of the nation was roused. 

Laymen and Churchmen alike shook off 
their lethargy. The degrading cruelties of 
the reign of Catholic Mary placed Pro- 
testant Elizabeth more firmly on the 
throne; and when James II. struggled 
vainly to restore his Church to England, it 

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was doubtless the remembrance of such 
scenes that induced many staunch English- 
men to welcome with enthusiasm the 
advent of the foreign Prince of Orange, 
and his English wife. 

Fox, who describes Gardiner as a mon- 
ster delighting in torture and blood, declares 
that the Bishop was stricken down by dread- 
ful and deadly disease, the very day on 
which he had consigned Bishops Latimer 
and Ridley to the flames at Oxford. 

This historian relates that the Duke of 
Norfolk came to sup at Winchester House, 
but that Gardiner would not sit down at 
table until the messenger from Oxford had 
arrived to say the sacrifice of the martyrs 
had been consummated. 

As he joyed over the narrative of their 
sufferings, the hand of Heaven fell heavily 
upon him, and he died soon afterwards in 
inexpressible anguish of body and mind. 

Other biographers say but little of the 
malady to which he succumbed, but Fox's 

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2 26 ©i&rottwfes of an <&T0 Hon. 

account is clearly incorrect in many parti- 
culars. The Duke of Norfolk Fox alludes 
to, had been dead some thirteen months, 
and Gardiner made a speech in Parliament 
more .than a week after the execution of 
these Bishops. 

It is also a disputed point whether 
Gardiner really exhibited vindictive eager- 
ness in bringing about the deaths of Lati- 
mer and Ridley, or whether, as some say, 
he endeavoured to save them, straining 
indeed his authority by offering Latimer a 
pardon without the knowledge of the Queen 
or the Council. 

Bell, as well as Fox, declares that his 
death was a judgment brought on him for 
his cruelty to these martyrs, but Dr. God- 
win, Bishop of Hereford, Dr. Fuller, and 
Archbishop Parker, all ascribe his death 
to natural causes. 

For some years Gardiner had suffered 
from rheumatic gout, and ultimately con- 

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Stepljen ©arBtim-. 227 

sumption of the lungs was joined to his 
other diseases. 

Whatever may have been his bodily- 
ailments, it is agreed by every writer that 
his latter days were embittered by remorse 
and mental distress. The consciousness of 
his many sins of omission and commission 
pressed heavily on his mind. He constantly 
averred that having been endowed with 
much power, he felt that he had turned 
that power to evil rather than to good. 

Some historians suggest that he repented 
having returned to the Church of Rome. 
Be this as it may, his opinions respecting 
the two Churches were such as to-day 
would be denominated broad. 

His sermons were very remarkable, for 
eloquence, for talent, and also for a peculiar 
sophistry of argument, by which he could 
twist every quotation or opinion so as to suit 
the views he at the moment entertained. 

His manner was earnest and noble, his 

Q 2 

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voice impressive, and few could listen un- 
moved to the fervid accents, and to the 
brilliant and crafty reasoning by which he 
advocated the various points of his dis- 

It is evident, by the attachment that 
was felt for him for upwards of forty years, 
by some of the greatest statesmen in Eu- 
rope, that he had the talent of conciliating 
men's minds and commanding their respect ; 
and in his own diocese he was not only a 
wise and considerate Bishop, but he was 
infinitely loved and admired. 

He died in Winchester House, London, 
but he was buried in Winchester Cathedral, 
close by the high altar. 

The funeral was solemnised by an 
amount of pomp and magnificence rare 
even in those days, when much outward 
show was usual in every ceremony. 

To conduct the unconscious dead to 
their last resting-place with every circum- 
stance of lueubriqus^. state and g-randeur. 

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Steplien (SarUtner. 229 

was then deemed but fitting expressions of 
affection and respect on the part of the 
relatives and mourners. 

Amongst the many cruel actions of which 
the odium has been cast upon Gardiner is 
the mournful tragedy of Lady Jane Grey. 
This poor girl was a victim to the political 
intrigues of an unscrupulous and ambitious 
party, and she paid by the sacrifice of her 
life, and that of her husband, Lord Guil- 
ford Dudley, for her brief and unwilling 

Sir Thomas Wyatt and Sir Peter Carew 
were the originators of a deep-laid and for- 
midable plot, by which Mary and her sister 
were to be deprived of their rights of in- 
heritance. They flattered the ambition of 
the Duke of Suffolk by suggesting that his 
daughter-in-law should ascend the throne, 
and thereby succeeded in implicating him 
and his children so completely in their pro- 
jects that the heads of all ultimately fell 
upon the scaffold. 

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230 (S:f>vonitk» of an ©ID Inn. 

The alarm occasioned to the Queen 
and her adherents by the discovery of 
this plot was, no doubt, considerable ;• but 
against Gardiner is brought the grave 
charge of having fomented this panic, rather 
than having endeavoured to allay it. 

But for his influence, the deaths of the 
principal conspirators, Wyatt and Carew, 
would have sufficed, and have been deemed 
a sufficient sacrifice. Many others amongst 
those who suffered in connection with the 
attempt might have been spared ; but the 
Bishop is reported to have said : 

"We may shake off the leaves and 
lop the branches, but if we do not utterly 
destroy the root, the hope of hereticks, 
we do nothing." 

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Amongst the many nooks and corners of 
this ancient Inn of Gray's, the little chapel 
must not be forgotten. Within its tranquil 
precincts all things speak of the past, for 
little has been changed therein for many 

Small and unpretentious as it is, few 
can enter this tiny place of worship without 
experiencing some emqtion, without giving 
some thought to the many great and illus- 
trious men — lawyers, Churchmen, and 
statesmen, now long numbered with the 
dead — who have knelt here for prayer and 

Centuries have elapsed since they have 

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passed away, but their noble deeds and 
writings are still remembered and cherished. 

Happily for England, this great race 
is not extinct. Some of those who now 
assemble within these walls have already 
made for themselves illustrious names — 
names that will be honoured and revered 
when they, in the fulness of tirhe, depart ; 
but others come here in sorrow, and per- 
chance remorse, for many a promising but 
wasted life. 

Poor, feeble mortals that we are! How 
many of us live but to exist ; and often, 
indeed, that existence is but the puerile 
flutter of a day ! 

Truly, we are but as the sand upon 
the sea-shore. The tiny atoms shine, per- 
haps brilliantly, while the sun looks down 
upon them ; but when clouds darken the 
sky, their brightness fades and soon is 
gone. Then a little later comes the rising 
tide — that overwhelming tide of Time, that 
sweeps them rapidly away. They are gone, 

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^fft ffifiajprt. 233 

and the place where they dwelt, and per- 
chance glittered, knows them no more. 
No one asks for them ; no one misses 
them. The sand is again as smooth as 
when they were there. The atoms around 
still quiver and shimmer in the sunshine 
as those now departed did of yore. 

Not only from association with the past 
Is the quiet little chapel attractive, but 
there is something soothing in its very 

The fact that so little change has been 
made in the building or its arrangements 
for some hundred years is interesting, and 
it is touching to see the number of gray- 
headed men who usually attend the services. 
The memorials around also speak of those 
who are gone— the painted glass windows, 
the decorations, the richly-carved book of 
the Communion Service, are all gifts from 
those who dearly loved the old place. 

In these days of greatly increased form, 
it is rare also to find a preacher who 

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234 ©troitttles of an ©IB Ihtn. 

appears in the pulpit arrayed in the old 
black Geneva gown. 

This quaintly-fashioned gown is pre- 
cisely that to which our Puritan forefathers 
attached so much importance, deeming that 
it savoured less of Popery than any other 
raiment, inasmuch as its severe simplicity 
was as far removed as possible from the 
more imposing and, in their opinion, gaudy 
vestments of Rome. 

From the pulpit in Gray's Inn Chapel 
may be heard sermons that stir men's 
hearts, that enlighten men's minds. 

No man can hope to obtain the post 
of preacher to Gray's Inn, unless he pos- 
sesses talents that entitle him to be listened 
to with respect and interest. Therefore, 
though quiet, though old-fashioned, though 
unemotional in ceremonies, many who think 
deeply, and who wish to listen to the words 
of those who also think deeply, may be 
found amongst the congregation gathered 
together in Gray's Inn Chapel. 

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^t (Ritapel. 23 s 

The present little building stands upon 
the site of the ancient chapel that received 
its Royal license from Edward II. in 13 14, 
when John, the son of Reginald de Grey, 
was authorised to convey thirty acres of 
land, two acres of meadow, and ten shillings 
rent, with the appurtenances, in Kentish 
Town, and in the parish of St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, to the Prior and Convent of St. 
Bartholomew's, in Smithfield, and to their 
successors, to provide a chaplain to perform 
divine service daily for the repose of the 
soul of the said John, and for the repose 
of the souls of his ancestors for ever. 

The Prior of St. Bartholomew's, how- 
ever, instead of providing a chaplain for 
the service of the chapel, appears, accord- 
ing to the accounts of the rents and pay- 
ments of that monastery, to have paid the 
Society of Gray's Inn an annual sum of 

;C7 13-y- 4«'- 

When the monasteries were dissolved, 

Henry VIII. decreed that the Treasurer 

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236 ffii^rontclcs of an #IB Jhw. 

and Fellows of this same Society should 
receive yearly from the King's Highness, 
during the King's pleasure, the sum of 
^6 1 3 J. ^d., to be paid in even portions, 
namely, at the " Feasts of The Natyvytie 
of Our Lord God, of the Annunciation 
of Our Blessed Ladye, the Vyrgyne, of 
the Natyvytie of Seynt John Baptist, and 
of Seynt Michaell, the Archaungell." 

But in 1 65 1, during the time of the 
Commonwealth, this payment ceased, and 
has never been revived, though during the 
reign of Elizabeth the officiating minister 
received a salary of £\ a year. 

By an order of Pension, 15th November, 
1598, it was ordered that the "Reader in 
Divinity " to be chosen, shall be a man un- 
married, having no ecclesiastical living other 
than a Prebend, that he be without the care 
of souls, and that he shall keep the same 
place while he continues unmarried. 

This order corresponds with an usage 
formerly existing with regard to the vergers 

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STiic ffifiapel. 237 

of St. Paul's Cathedral, who, by one of 
the Cathedral statutes, were to be in a state 
of celibacy. They had either to relinquish 
their wives or their office. 

According to Dean Milman, this statute 
declares : " That because having a wife is 
a troublesome and disturbing affair, and 
because husbands are apt to study the 
wishes of their wives, or their mistresses, 
and no man can serve two masters, the 
vergers are to be either bachelors, or to 
give up their wives." 

Since these times either wives have 
improved and become less troublesome, or 
else the vergers have become less subservient 
to them, for at St. Paul's this rule has been 
abolished. As regards the Reader of Gray's 
Inn, it still remains in force. 

Unfortunately the chapel is, architec- 
turally speaking, of no importance. It is 
low and insignificant, and quite unworthy 
externally of the venerable Inn to which 
it belongs. 

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238 ©iirotttries of an ©IK Inn. 

Strype, in his edition of " Stowe," much 
praises the Hall of Gray's Inn, but laments 
that the chapel is so small, and wishes the 
Society would build a new one raised on 
arches, so that there would be a good dry 
walk underneath them in rainy weather. 

The same writer mentions also a new 
entrance made into Holborn, where had 
been erected, he says : 

" A fayre Gate and Gatehouse that were 
great improvements, making a more con- 
venient and honourable passage, whereof this 
house stood in much neede, as the other 
entrances were rather posterns than gates." 

To the shop beneath this gateway a 
certain interest is attached from its having 
been the place of business of Jacob Tonson, 
the celebrated bookseller, who removed here 
from Chancery Lane in 1697. 

Several of the most ancient buildings 
were destroyed by fire in 1604, and un- 
happily also nearly all the earliest records 
of the Society perished in the same flames. 

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^ffe Ct^apel, 239 

Subsequently the increasing number of 
students has necessitated the demolition 
of many more of the ancient houses, for 
some details respecting them that still exist, 
describe these old buildings as being not only 
dark and ill-convenient, but so deficient in 
space that the students had frequently to 
lodge double. 

In 1688 the Inn appears to have been 
divided into three courts, but two of these 
have been thrown into one large area, called 
Gray's Inn Square. 

This same lamentable fire of 1604 de- 
stroyed the greater part of the once valuable 
library. The present library contains about 
13,000 volumes, a large proportion being, 
of course, works on law. There is also a 
small but valuable collection of manuscripts 
in twenty-four volumes, some of which are 
finely illuminated. They mostly relate to 
theological subjects, and date from the twelfth 
to the fifteenth century. One amongst them, 
Bracton's " De Legibus et Consuetudinibus 

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240 i!^ffVonitU» of an ©18 Unn. 

Angliae," in folio, written about the end of the 
thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth 
century, was presented to the Society of 
Gray's Inn in 1635 by John Godbolt, then 
Reader of the Inn. 

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Five Archbishops of Canterbury have 
been connected with Gray's Inn, one of 
whom was the celebrated Laud, Primate 
of England in 1633, temp, Charles I. ; a 
man as much loved in domestic and private 
life for his kindness, charity, and tenderness, 
as he was feared, and indeed hated, as a 
Churchman and as a statesman, both on 
account of the rigid intolerance of his re- 
ligious opinions, and from the uncompro- 
mising tenacity with which he strove to 
enforce every right to which he considered 
the Church entitled. 

Unhappily, this unbending austerity, far 
from assistingp.^^^;^.Jni^e the cause he 

242 ffii^rontclcs of an ©ID Kntt. 

endeavoured to serve, and his zeal was so 
ill directed, that it eventually brought his 
head to the block, and was one great cause 
of the civil and religious war that for so 
many years desolated this land. 

Animated as he was by the religious 
fervour of the times. Laud was inflexible 
in his resolution of forcing upon all 
men the adoption of principles he be- 
lieved to be right. Even the fatal ex- 
amples of previous reigns had not taught 
him that one of the noblest attributes 
of Christianity is forbearance. Great as 
was his pride, stern and severe as 
were his judgments, yet in many respects 
the Archbishop was a man to be much 
respected, even much loved. He considered 
that his pride as a Churchman was but a 
fitting attribute of the great position he held 
as Primate of England. He believed that 
his duty to the Church demanded of him 
sternness and severity in dealing with her 
enemies, and he evinced the heartfelt sin- 

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arciiiji'sljop l^auB. 243 

cerity of his opinions by giving up his life in 
support of them. 

When the end drew near, Laud nobly 
testified, by the fortitude and calmness with 
which he faced death, by the tender thought- 
fulness he showed for all around him, that his 
pride and severity were but for his office, 
that he himself was, as he had ever been, a 
humble and sincere Christian. 

He has been accused by his enemies of 
endeavouring to overthrow the Protestant 
religion ; but one of the best pamphlets 
ever published against Roman Catholic 
tenets was written by Laud in his answer 
to Dr. Fisher. His foes also were espe- 
cially rancorous against him for the attempts 
he made to introduce wholesome and lawful 
games on Sundays and holy-days; a pro- 
ceeding viewed with much disfavour by 
the strict Puritans of the day, who held 
that all exercises on the Sabbath, save those 
of religion, tended to Popery. 

Laud also endeavoured to restrain the 

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244 ffltjronfcfeii of ait <Bia Mn, 

publication of irreligious and other evil books, 
by subjecting all publications to the revision 
of the Star Chamber. This endeavour on 
the part of the Archbishop caused a storm 
of indignation, for it was held to be an 
attempt to subvert the existing laws, and to 
restrain the liberty of the people. The in- 
discreet zeal, also, that he displayed in his 
efforts to introduce into Scotland the Liturgy 
of the Church of England, made him many 
enemies in that country. 

At length, after many years of energetic 
but fruitless struggles, his foes prevailed 
against him ; he was committed to the 
Tower, tried before a committee of the 
House of Lords, and condemned to death. 

He was beheaded on Tower Hill on the 
loth of January, 1 641, in the seventy-second 
year of his age. 

Charles, it is said, though lamenting the 
death of his old servant, made no attempt to 
save the life of one who, though opinionated 

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^tct)litf»t)09 iLatttf. 245 

and mistaken, had served his King with 
affectionate fidelity. 

Archbishop Laud's only sister married 
Sir John Robinson, afterwards Governor of 
the Tower in the reign of Charles II., and, 
if we may believe Pepys, an intimate friend 
and boon companion of that merry monarch. 
The descendants of Lady Robinson, namely, 
Sir George Robinson of Cranford, Northamp- 
tonshire, Lord Lyveden, of Farming Woods, 
Northamptonshire, and John Harvey, of 
Ickwell-Bury, Bedfordshire, still possess 
many interesting relics of this famous 

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Archbishop Dr. William Juxon was 
Bishop of London when King Charles I. was 
brought to trial, condemned, and executed. 

Throughout the civil wars, Juxon had 
resided at Fulham, and although his steady- 
adherence and loyalty to the King were well 
known, the prelate's meek and inoffensive 
behaviour and his many charitable works 
had gained him the respect of even the most 
violent of the Puritan and Republican parties. 

When the trial of the Royal martyr 
commenced, Charles, who early foresaw its 
result, especially requested the attendance 
of Bishop Juxon ; and the ministrations of 
this good man and truly Christian divine 

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JStsJjop jrttacott. 247 

soothed the unhappy monarch during the 
terrible hours of his last days on earth. 

Juxon was unwearied in his devotion to 
his Royal master. He attended the un- 
happy monarch on the scaffold ; he re- 
ceived the last commissions, he alone heard 
the sufferer's last words. 

When all was over, the Bishop, at 
considerable personal risk, took charge of 
the mortal remains and conveyed them to 
Windsor. When there, however, in spite of 
urgent remonstrances and earnest entreaties, 
he was refused permission by the then 
Governor, Colonel Whichcote, to perform 
the final sad offices over the Royal corpse. 

On his return to London, Juxon was 
thrown into prison for refusing to divulge 
the particulars of his conversations with 
the King ; but his imprisonment was not 
of long duration, and, when released, he 
returned to Fulham Palace, where he was 
allowed to pass several months in peace. 

The following year, however, he was de- 

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248 ftfivonitks of an ©IB Etttt. 

prived of his bishopric. He then retired to 
his own property in Gloucestershire, where he 
resided in much privacy until the Restoration, 
He was then made Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and had the satisfaction of placing the 
crown upon the head of Charles H. 

The Archbishop died in 1663. Few 
men have left this world more universally 
beloved than this excellent prelate ; but 
few men have equalled him in having con- 
sistently led a life as blameless as it was 
self-denying — a life made beautiful by ex- 
ceeding humility, gentleness, and charity. 

He was succeeded in the archbishopric 
by Gilbert Sheldon, in 1677. This prelate 
had formerly been Clerk of the Closet to 
Charles I., and had ever adhered faithfully 
to the King during the troubles of the 
Rebellion and the trials of the Royalists 
during the Commonwealth. At the Restora- 
tion he was made Bishop of London, and sub- 
sequently became Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Dr. Sheldon was a man of great learn- 
ing and of an excellent life. His charities 

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arcibfitsi&ojp WLf^Usift. 249 

were numerous and magnificent, and he has 
also immortalised his memory by building the 
famous theatre at Oxford that bears his name. 

Another Archbishop of Canterbury con- 
nected with Gray's Inn was Dr. John 
Whitgift, Primate of England in 1583. A 
man of very exceptional talent, eminent 
alike for the ability of his writings, and 
for his stirring eloquence in the pulpit. 

By some historians he has been much 
praised, by others equally blamed ; but it 
must be remembered that Whitgift lived 
at a period when men's minds were agi- 
tated and much troubled by religious and 
civil contentions, and the great prelate was 
a violent man amongst violent partisans. 

He was especially noted for his bitter 
hostility both to the Roman Catholic 
party and to that of the Puritans. By 
each of these religious bodies he was 
therefore equally hated and dreaded, and 
in many instances his judgments and his 
actions were harsh and severe ; still, it 
must also beoX^JJfifl^g^gj^ that at a time 

250 €i)voviitlt» of an <3Ui Unn. 

when the Church of England had to 
contend with many enemies, foreign as 
well as domestic, and was menaced with 
dangers unknown to us in these days, 
Whitgift held the reins of government 
with an able jind a vigorous grasp, and 
to his credit it can be said that though 
severe he was never cruel. 

This Archbishop was much favoured 
by Queen Elizabeth, and did many excel- 
lent works of charity, both establishing 
and assisting large hospitals for the poor. 

In the east window of the chapel at 
Gray's Inn may be seen the arms of 
these prelates, as well as those of Williarn 
Wake, Archbishop of Canterbury in 1716. 
Here, also, are the escutcheons of George 
Morley, Bishop of Winchester, Nathaniel 
Crewe, Bishop of Durham, and of Walker 
King, Bishop of Rochester. 

Thus we see that this venerable Society 
exhibits, emblazoned on her ancient walls, 
the names and. arms of those who, during 

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their lives, shed such lustre on the shelter- 
ing house in which their earliest struggles 
were fought. 

The children she had so much reason 
to be proud of honoured her in their lives. 
They have gone, but in death she cherishes 
their memory, and ever fondly and jealously 
guards their names from oblivion. 

But now, farewell, pleasant old Inn, with 
all your glorious Past, your glorious Present, 
and your glorious Future. 

The student, labouring hard to master 
the difficulties of the magnificent but stern 
profession of the Law, must often feel his 
heart stir within him with emulation, when he 
remembers how many are the celebrated men 
who have also studied diligently beneath 
the shelter of these gray old walls, or 
who have reposed, perchance, at times 
beneath the spreading branches of the 
grand old trees. 

The gates of the Temple of Fame 
are open to every man, if he can but win 

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252 E^onitkn of an <©ID Bmt. 

his way up the steep and thorny path that 
leads to its golden portals. 

None, however, can grapple with the 
difficulties of the road but the courageous, 
the resolute, and the talented. 

Woe to him who lingers or faints by 
the way. To the laggard, as to the weakly, 
the shining temple becomes but a glittering 
mist. It is there, but unattainable. He 
who falters or shrinks from the struggle 
can but veil his head in grief and disap- 
pointment, as those aspirants who are made 
of stronger and sterner stuff than himself 
pass him in the race. 

Centuries roll on, generation after 
generation passes away ; but those who 
love this venerable and time-honoured 
Society, trust with heartfelt affection and 
gratitude that there will ever be some 
" Chronicles of this Old Inn." 


CHAKLES DK:K©l5f*l!©cfeSrj>I'fl*C»»X«fi® PALACE PRESS. 

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